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Base your answers to questions 1 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
In order to determine the effect of a certain antibiotic on a species of microorganism, an investigation was carried out. A sample of a specific species of microorganism was added to 100 mL of a liquid culture medium. One mL of a solution of the antibiotic was then added to that culture medium. Each day at 10 a.m., 1 mL of the experimental culture medium was removed and the number of microorganisms in the 1-mL sample was determined. The 1 mL of experimental culture medium was replaced by 1 mL of new sterile culture medium to maintain a constant volume. The results are shown in the table below.
Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid, following the directions below.
The microorganisms present on day 5 were*
The graph below shows the changes in the num- ber of individuals in a population who have a specific trait.
Which statement concerning this trait is a valid inference?*
The photograph below shows a recently discovered all-black penguin chick and several typical black- and-white chicks.
The appearance of this penguin chick with all black feathers might*
Base your answers to questions 4 on the information and graphs below, and on your knowledge of biology. The diagrams below show the number of fish in a lake and the average water temperature in the lake for the months of May through October.
During certain times of the year, bears feed heavily on a population of fish in a lake. At other times of the year, the bear population feeds primarily on fruits, berries, and insects.
Within the fish population, variations exist in color, size, gamete production, and swimming speed. A variation that would most likely be passed on to future generations of the species is*
Base your answers to questions 5 on the information in the chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
How does the ability to produce 3000 to 6500 eggs benefit the species?*
Parrots are tropical birds. However, in some areas of New York City, some parrots have been able to survive outdoors year-round. These parrots survive, while most others cannot, due to*
Characteristics that are harmful to a species tend to decrease in frequency from generation to generation because these characteristics usually*
The diagram below represents the same field of mice hunted by a hawk over a period of three months.
The overall changes in the population of mice can be explained best by*
Which statement describes an effect of natural selection on a species?*
Identify one trait, other than a beak characteristic, that could affect the survival of a finch. Support your answer. *
Other than having a variation in beak characteristics, describe another variation in a finch species that could promote survival of an individual bird. Support your answer. *
Base your answers to questions 12 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Rising CO2 [Carbon Dioxide] Levels in Ocean Block Sharks’ Ability to Smell Prey
…Changes in the chemistry of the world’s oceans expected by century’s end could impact the hunting ability of sharks, which depend heavily on their sense of smell to locate prey, researchers say.
As ocean waters turn increasingly acidic from absorbing atmospheric CO2 created by human activities, the odor-detecting ability of sharks to locate prey could diminish, they say. …
Source: Jim Algar, Tech Times, 9/9/14
Describe how the inability of sharks to detect their prey could affect an ocean ecosystem. *
Base your answer to question 13 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
In many areas, there are some small mammals whose fur color is influenced by temperature. In these animals, the trait for fur color is expressed only if the air temperature is above a certain level. In cold weather, when the ground is covered with snow, the trait is not expressed and the fur color is white.
Explain how the fur color change trait may help the small mammals survive. *
Base your answer to question 14-18 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
New varieties of organisms have resulted from human activities. These organisms have often led to problems in modern society. Two of these new varieties are listed below.
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria Pesticide-resistant insects
Select one of these varieties and discuss a problem associated with the development of this new variety of organism. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify the variety you selected
• identify one biological process by which a population of this variety may develop resistance 
• describe how this process is involved in the production of a population of resistant organisms 
• identify one problem caused by this resistance 
• state one solution to this problem 
• identify one possible negative effect of this solution 
Base your answers to questions 19 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
Inherited instructions control the color patterns of snakes. Some snakes that are not poisonous have colors that resemble the patterns on poisonous snakes. Predators avoid eating harmless snakes that have color patterns similar to those of the poisonous snakes. The results of a recent study indicate that predators in areas that have only harmless snakes do not avoid attacking snakes that have color patterns similar to poisonous snakes.
State one advantage for a nonpoisonous snake having coloration similar to that of a poisonous snake. *