Biology Test Preparation Practice

    (Nysed) Mutations Caused Environmental Factors

    NGSS: HS-LS3-2

    Base your answers to questions 11 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Guppies are small, tropical freshwater fish that display wide variation in coloration. Some have bright splotches of blue, red, and orange, while others are quite drab and dull. Research has shown that females prefer to mate with brightly colored males; however, this trait makes them more likely to be seen. Guppies, like all species, must be able to both sur- vive and reproduce in order to avoid extinction.


    Base your answers to questions 12 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Mutations cause many disorders in humans. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disorder that can be passed on from generation to generation. Skin cancer is a disorder that sometimes originates in skin cells as a result of overexposure to the Sun.


    Base your answer to question 13-15 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Information From the Cat Gene Database

    A database is being used to trace the evolutionary history of wild and domestic cats. Comparisons show that there are very few differences between the genes present in domestic cats and the genes present in wild cats, such as tigers and lions. Research has also shown that wild cats and domestic cats last shared a common ancestor about 11 million years ago. Since then, there has been very little change in the entire cat genome (the complete set of genes for all the species). This indicates that the cats are well-adapted to change. Yet, there are some important differences.

    Big cats share about 1,376 genes that set them apart from other animals. These genes are related to muscle strength and the ability to digest protein. In addition, there are genes that have been found in specific cats that live in specific environments. Genes related to smell, visual perception, and nerve development are evolving rapidly in Siberian tigers. Snow leopards have three mutations related to the use of oxygen at high altitudes. The database is also being used to study diversity within various cat species.


    Base your answers to questions 17 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Turtle Cells and Human Skin

    New research has demonstrated that turtles and humans may have had a common ancestor 310 million years ago. A recent study looked at the genes responsible for the skin layers of turtle shells compared to the genes for human skin. The findings of the study suggest that about 250 million years ago, when turtle evolution split from other reptiles, a mutation in a specific group of genes occurred. The basic organization of this group of genes is similar in turtles and humans, and they produce the important skin proteins that produce shells in turtles and protect against infection in the skin of humans.