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Base your answers to questions 1 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph shows the masses of different types of plants found in an area of the Adirondack Mountains after a forest fire occurred.
The mass of plants shown in the graph refers to the mass of a number of*
Which statement best explains why different plant species are found at different water depths as represented in the diagram below?
A fundamental concept of ecology is that living organisms*
A graph is shown below.
The graph contains information about*
A student set up a small freshwater fish tank. The tank included water, fish, gravel, a snail, and plants, as represented below.
Which statement best describes an activity performed by a student investigating an abiotic factor using this setup?*
Which statement describes an event that would most severely disrupt the process of ecological succession in an area?*
Which list contains only abiotic conditions that might be found in a pond ecosystem?*
Base your answers to questions 8 on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagrams represent how various populations interact in a forest environment.
Which diagram, A or B, most accurately represents interactions between biotic and abiotic factors in a forest environment? Support your answer. 
Base your answers to questions 9 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Found: A Plant-Eating Spider
Spiders are meat-eaters. Until recently, scientists thought that was true for the roughly 40,000 spider species in the world. Now, researchers have discovered a spider that eats mostly plants.
Bagheera kiplingi, a jumping spider, lives in Central America and Mexico. It nests in the leaves of acacia shrubs. Scientists have long known that ants live in these plants. The ants eat the plants’ little yellow vegetables. But scientists had no idea that the spiders eat the vegetables too.
Christopher Meehan was a college student when he found the plant nibbling spiders. “I thought I was hallucinating,” he told TFK (Time for Kids). “But by the end of the day, I had seen about 100 more spiders eating plants.”
Source: Time for Kids World Report,
Edition 10/23/09 Vol. 15, #7 p.3
Identify one abiotic factor that most likely affects the size of the acacia shrub population. *
Base your answers to questions 10 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Hydrothermal Vent Communities
Scientists discovered a unique hydrothermal ecosystem on the sea floor at hot-water vents thousands of feet below the ocean surface. Organisms in these deep-sea regions have no access to sunlight, so they depend on the heat, methane, and high levels of sulfur-bearing minerals found in the heated fluids in which they live. Scientists were amazed to discover vent communities able to sustain vast amounts of life. The vent organisms depend on bacteria that can use the sulfur-bearing minerals to produce organic materials. These bacteria live on rock surfaces and as free-floating blobs. Some bacteria live within and provide nutrients for an unusual species of giant tubeworms that lacks a digestive system. Snails, shrimp, and clams are among the animals that feed directly on the bacteria. Crabs feed directly on other animals in the vent community.
Identify one abiotic factor that makes the hydrothermal vent ecosystem different from other ocean ecosystems. *
Corals are a group of organisms that live in shallow, warm areas of the world’s oceans. Coral reefs are composed of a hard material that is produced by these small coral animals, and is then colonized by photosynthetic organisms called Zooxanthellae. These plant-like organisms generate sugars that are used by their animal partners for food and are needed for the survival of the coral.
State one possible reason that coral reefs exist only in shallow waters. *
Base your answers to questions 12 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
Daphnia (water fleas) are sensitive to many changes in pond ecosystems. For this reason they are often used in bioassays, tests in which organisms are exposed to various levels of a chemical to determine what levels are safe. The results of these tests determine whether or not the chemical being tested will affect other pond organisms.
An experiment was designed to determine the toxicity of different salt solutions on cultures of daphnia. Five fish tanks were each filled with the same amount of water containing different concentrations of salt. Ten daphnia were placed into each tank. After 48 hours, the number of daphnia that had survived and the number of daphnia that had died in each tank were recorded and the percent mortality was calculated. The results of the experiment are shown in the data table below.
Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid on the next page, following the directions below.
Which salt concentration is most likely closest to the concentration of salt found in the natural environment of this species of daphnia? Support your answer. 
Salt concentration:_______________________ g/L*
Base your answers to questions 13 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
The data table summarizes the changes that occurred to farmland in the years immediately following its abandonment. The land is located in a very stable ecosystem. It was abandoned after years of overuse and weathering, which resulted in the depletion of soil nutrients.
Which type of vegetation appears to have the lowest soil nutrient requirements? Support your answer with information from the data table. 
Lowest soil nutrient requirement vegetation: ___________________________________________________*
Base your answers to questions 14 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Nature Will Have to Clean Up Hawaii Molasses Leak That Killed Thousands of Fish
A massive spill of thick molasses has turned Honolulu Harbor into a watery wasteland where thousands of fish have been suffocated – a disaster that officials say Mother Nature will have to clean up.
“There’s nothing alive there at all,” diver Roger White told NBC affiliate KHNL after making a seven-minute video of dead sea life blanketing the bottom of the harbor.…
…“Unlike with an oil spill, it’s a sugar product so it will dissipate on its own,” Matson spokesman Jeff Hull told NBC News on Thursday. “There’s not an active cleanup.”
“The molasses is not toxic but it’s heavier than water so it’s spreading around on the sea floor, displacing the oxygen-rich water down there, and the fish are suffocating,” said Keith Korsmeyer, a professor of biology at Hawaii Pacific University.
The die-off also could lure predators like sharks, barracuda and eels to the harbor and neighboring Keehi Lagoon, experts warned.…
…Korsmeyer said marine life would probably repopulate the harbor, after the low- oxygen water moves out, but that could take months or even years.…
Explain how the molasses spill caused many of the animals to die off. *
Base your answers to questions 15 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents an ecological process that occurs in New York State over a long period of time.
Identify two abiotic factors that can determine which types of organisms can inhabit an ecosystem. *