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Which human activity would interfere most directly with the production of oxygen in the environment?*
The diagram below represents the changes over time in an area.
Which example is not a natural process that could return a hardwood forest to the grass stage once again?*
The Mississippi River Delta wetlands ecosystem is home to a large number of fish, birds, and other aquatic organisms. During the last century, this ecosystem has seen a decrease in wetland areas and species diversity due to land development, agriculture, and flooding. Conservation groups have been working to reconnect the Mississippi River with its flood plain and restore lost wetlands. One result of restoring wetland areas in this ecosystem would be*
The table below shows the results of a study on the lifespan of 115 individual song sparrows.
The two most likely factors contributing to the decline in the number of these 115 sparrows during year 1 were*
Human population growth has led to a reduction in the populations of predators throughout natural ecosystems across the United States. Scientists consider the loss of these predators to have a*
Environmentalists are hoping to protect endangered organisms by calling for a reduction in the use of pesticides, because loss of these organisms would*
Which farming practice causes the least harm to the environment?*
Which action by humans could improve the quality of the air?*
Increased human population growth usually results in*
In 2003, the city of Rochester, New York, began killing weeds with steam. A machine heats water to 280°F then sprays it on the weeds with great pressure. The extreme heat destroys the cellular structure of the plants. What is a possible disadvantage of this method of weed control?*
Base your answer to question 11 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Dissolved oxygen (DO) can be found in an aquatic ecosystem and is often one factor that affects the size of populations of aquatic organisms. Water temperature is very important in determining the amount of DO in a water supply. The colder the temperature of the water, the more DO the water can hold.
State one possible reason why the biodiversity of an aquatic ecosystem could decrease if the water temperature were to increase. Support your answer. *
Base your answers to questions 12 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Decline in the Amphibians
Declines in amphibian species, such as frogs, toads and salamanders, might affect the ways in which ecosystems function. Amphibians prey on many types of small organisms that survive by consuming leaf litter (leaf material on the ground of ecosystems). These small organisms include animals such as earthworms, centipedes, millipedes, pill bugs, and many species of insects. In turn, amphibians are preyed on by fish, herons, chipmunks, turkeys, foxes, coyotes, and other animals.
Human activities often cause a reduction in the size of amphibian populations. As amphibian populations are reduced, the organisms that are preyed on by amphibians increase in number. As the populations of small forest organisms increase, the amount of leaf litter decreases. The decrease in the amount of leaf litter on the forest floor may have negative effects on the forest ecosystem.
Identify one human activity and describe how that activity could directly or indirectly lead to a reduction in amphibian populations. *
Base your answers to question 13-14 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram indicates a change in an ecosystem.
Identify some of the key events associated with the change. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify one natural event that could cause the disruption indicated in the diagram 
• state what would most likely happen to the new stable ecosystem in future years if no further disruptions occur *
Base your answers to questions 15 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents an ecological process that occurs in New York State over a long period of time.
Identify the short-term effect that a forest fire during stage D would have on the biodiversity of the area. *
Base your answers to questions 16 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Coral Reef Ecosystems
There are many ecological interactions that maintain the biodiversity present in coral reefs. In addition to coral, microscopic algae, seaweed, sea grasses, sponges and worms, and a variety of fish are among the organisms that live in reef ecosystems. Ocean currents often link different reef systems and move organisms from one reef area to another. This movement is a factor in repopulating a reef that has been damaged by environmental changes.
One environmental change involves an increased growth of seaweed. When the population of seaweed increases, the reef shifts from a coral-dominated ecosystem to a seaweed-dominated ecosystem. This change disrupts the relationships between the organisms that live there.
Studies have shown that, as the density of seaweed in a reef area increases, the number of fish that eat the seaweed in that area decreases. This may be due to the presence of more predators, or the taste of the more mature plants. The fish move to areas where there is less seaweed growth. As this trend continues, the reef areas are taken over by the seaweed. Once this happens, it is very hard to remove the seaweed and restore the reef to a healthy ecosystem.
In addition to this problem, temperature changes are threatening the ocean currents that connect the reef systems. A change in the currents would reduce the movement of fish larvae from one area to another. This contributes to the seaweed problem.
State one advantage of the fish larvae moving by ocean currents into a damaged reef ecosystem. *