Biology Test Preparation Practice

    Structural Organization Of Multicellular Organisms

    NGSS: HS-LS1-2

    Base your answers to questions 11 on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagrams represent a single-celled organism and a multicellular organism.

    organization and patterns in Life, levels of organization for structure and function fig: lenv62017-exampcw_g18.png


    Base your answer to question 14-17 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Artificial Placenta

    It is estimated that every year more than 15 million babies are born too early. The lungs of these premature infants are often immature and easily damaged. Premature births happen for a variety of reasons—some known and some unknown. Those that are known include infections and conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure. Scientists are researching what causes premature births, in an attempt to develop solutions to prevent them.

    Scientists are also working on the development of an artificial placenta. At the University of Michigan, five premature lambs were placed in artificial placentas and kept alive for weeks. During this time, each lamb’s blood was circulated through its artificial placenta.


    Base your answers to questions 18 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy

    Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with some severe human diseases and are inherited through the cytoplasm in the egg cell. These diseases vary, but often affect organs and tissues with the highest energy requirements, including the brain, heart, muscle, pancreas, and kidney.

    Scientists have successfully used mitochondrial replacement therapy with monkeys. Scientists are considering using this technique to reduce the incidence of mitochondrial disease in children. The proposed treatment would involve removing the nucleus from an egg donated by a healthy woman and replacing it with an egg nucleus from a patient (mother) with mitochondrial disease. This would place the patient’s egg nucleus into the cytoplasm of the donor’s egg containing healthy mitochondria. The egg is then fertilized with the father’s sperm externally using in vitro fertilization (IVF) to produce a zygote. The zygote is cultured for a few days to produce an embryo.