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Base your answers to questions 1 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.
A student conducts an experiment to determine how the amount of light affects the rate of oxygen production in a plant. The graph represents the rate of oxygen produced for one trial, X, in the experiment. By the end of the experiment, the plant had not reached maximum oxygen production.
If a student supplies more light than was received during trial X, a bar placed on the graph to represent the results would most likely be*
Base your answers to questions 2 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
Fertilized eggs containing embryos from the same species of alligator were incubated at different temperatures. The sex of the hatched offspring is shown in the table below.
A review of this data could lead to the conclusion that*
The graph below shows changes in the populations of hares and lynx in a Canadian ecosystem.
Changes in Hare and Lynx Populations
Source: Adapted from http://lbyiene-jardin-wikispaces.com
Which statement about the hares and lynx can be supported with information from the graph?*
An investigation was carried out to determine which of three antibacterial soaps is most effective. Four petri dishes labeled A, B, C, and D were set up. The same amount and type of bacteria was added to each dish. Next, 2 mL of a different brand of soap were added to dishes B, C, and D. Then, 2 mL of water were added to dish A, instead of soap. The dishes were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. At the end of the investigation, the amount of bacteria in each dish was determined. Dish D had the least bacteria. It was concluded that the soap in dish D was the most effective soap to use against bacteria.
Which statement best describes the validity of this conclusion?*
Base your answers to questions 5 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
In recent years, biologists have noticed that honeybees responsible for pollinating food crops across the United States are dying at an alarming rate. Farmers, economists, and biologists are very worried about the impact that the loss of honeybees might have on the food supply.
Peach blossom pollinations could be at risk if there is a total loss of honeybee populations in areas where peaches are grown. Which action would be most likely to help peach growers stay in business and be able to produce good-sized crops of peaches?*
Base your answer to question 6-8 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The American Academy of Pediatrics has noted an increase in the population of children with disorders that are usually associated with older adults, such as diabetes. Observers of American culture point to the trend to “super-size” food servings as a possible cause. Larger servings might encourage children of today to eat more fats and sugars than children ate a generation ago.
In an attempt to determine if there is a relationship between diet and the development of diabetes in children, a study was done which surveyed a group of children regarding their eating habits and whether or not they were diabetic. When the survey results were collected, the data were used to organize the children into two groups based on their responses, and then the data were analyzed.
Discuss this investigation. In your answer, be sure to:
• state the hypothesis being tested in this investigation 
• identify one survey response that was most likely used for organizing the children into two groups 
• state what survey results would support the hypothesis stated above *
Base your answers to questions 9 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
In an experiment to test the effectiveness of a new vaccine, 50 rats received an injection of equal doses of the vaccine and 50 other rats received an injection of equal doses of a weak salt solution. Two months later, all of the rats received injections that contained equal doses of live, disease-causing organisms.
The experimental results are shown in the chart below.
Do the results of this experiment indicate that the vaccine is ready for human testing? Support your answer with information from the table. *
Base your answers to questions 10 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Pocket mice are small rodents that feed mainly at night and are preyed upon by owls, hawks, and snakes. Scientists studied pocket mice living on dark volcanic rock in both New Mexico and fifty miles away in Arizona. They recorded their data in the chart below.
State one possible hypothesis that would explain the differences in the observed data between the two locations. *
Base your answers to question 11-12 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of exposure to ultraviolet (UV)
light on the growth of bacteria. Equal quantities of bacterial cells were spread on Petri dishes that are used to grow colonies of bacteria. Half of each dish was shielded from the UV light with a UV screen. The other half was exposed to UV light for various amounts of time. After the UV treatment, the bacteria were grown in an incubator for 24 hours and the number of colonies was counted.
The table below contains the data collected at different exposure times by counting the number of bacterial colonies on both the screen-covered side and unscreened side
Analyze the experiment that produced the data in the table. In your answer, be sure to:
• state a hypothesis for the experiment 
• state whether the results of the experiment support or fail to support your hypothesis. Support your answer *
Sometimes a hypothesis is not supported. Yet, scientists consider the findings valuable. State one reason scientists would value an experiment that does not support the initial hypothesis. *
Base your answers to questions 14 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph shows the change in the blood glucose level of one person after eating a cookie.
Based on the data and information provided, state whether or not it would be valid to conclude that bananas supply more glucose than cookies. Support your answer. *
Base your answers to questions 15 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Different plant species require different amounts of direct sunlight in order to flower. A student designed an experiment to determine the length of exposure to direct sunlight necessary for a specific plant species to produce flowers. The student collected the data below.
0 hours, 0% with flowers; 9 hours, 0% with flowers
1 hour, 0% with flowers; 5 hours, 90% with flowers
3 hours, 80% with flowers; 7 hours, 10% with flowers
At the end of the experiment, the student stated that if plants are exposed to more hours of daylight, they will always produce a greater percentage of flowers. Is this a valid conclusion? Support your answer. *
Base your answers to questions 16 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Kaolin as a Spray to Control a Bean Pest
Spraying kaolin, a clay-like material, on the leaves of plants has been effective in reducing insect damage to plants that grow in temperate regions, but has not been tried in tropical areas.
Researchers in the tropical Andean region of South America have recently conducted experiments to see if kaolin can be used there to control the greenhouse whitefly, a significant pest of the region’s bean crops.
In the study, four groups of bean plants were used with the following treatments:
Should the group 3 kaolin treatments be considered as an acceptable alternative control method to the group 2 insecticide treatment for whiteflies? Support your answer with data from the chart. *
Base your answers to questions 17 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.
Dr. Liz Hadly studied the ecology of Yellowstone National Park for 30 years, specifically the amphibians inhabiting the park for 20 of those years. Dr. Hadly studied 46 ponds in 1992-1993. Of these, 43 supported amphibians. From 2006-2008, only 38 of the original 46 ponds contained water. The graph below represents population data for four amphibian species collected by Dr. Hadly during 1992-1993 and 2006-2008.
Explain why such a long-term study is more likely to be accepted by Dr. Hadly’s peers than one that took place over a shorter period of time. *
Base your answers to question 18-20 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Secondhand Smoke and Estrogen
A fertility researcher conducted a study of pregnant women. The researcher’s hypothesis was that the estrogen levels of pregnant women who were exposed to daily secondhand cigarette smoke would be higher than estrogen levels of pregnant women not exposed to daily secondhand smoke.
The researcher measured the estrogen levels of eight pregnant women each week throughout their pregnancy. Four of the women lived in houses with heavy smokers, the other four did not. The women’s ages varied from 19 to 42 years old. Six of the women were pregnant with girls, one was pregnant with a boy, and one was pregnant with twin boys. The research was submitted for peer review.
Analyze this experiment. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify one error in the researcher’s experimental design 
• identify one way, other than affecting estrogen levels, that secondhand smoke could affect a developing embryo 
• explain why the process of peer review is an important step in this research *