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Some bacteria are unable to survive unless a certain nutrient is present in their food supply. After exposure to ultraviolet radiation, some of these bacteria are able to synthesize this nutrient. This change is most likely due to*
Which factor has the greatest influence on the development of new, inheritable characteristics?*
Which situation results in a characteristic that is inheritable?*
Many domestic plants that are currently used for food by humans share a wild plant ancestor. The changes that have occurred in four common plants and the results are shown in the chart below.
What event most likely produced the changes that occurred in the wild plant ancestor?*
The fruit fly represented in the diagram below has unusual, curled wings that formed after exposure to radiation.
In order for the fly to pass this trait on to its offspring, a change had to occur in*
Some variation must be present in a population in order for natural selection to take place. These variations arise from mutations in the DNA and*
The variations that exist in a population of wild giraffes are usually a result of events that occur during*
Which processes lead to the greatest variety of genetic combinations?*
Which statement best describes how a new human trait develops and can be passed on to future generations?*
Finches on the Galapagos Islands express a variety of traits. Variability in the offspring of these finches is a result of*
Base your answers to questions 11 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
Inherited instructions control the color patterns of snakes. Some snakes that are not poisonous have colors that resemble the patterns on poisonous snakes. Predators avoid eating harmless snakes that have color patterns similar to those of the poisonous snakes. The results of a recent study indicate that predators in areas that have only harmless snakes do not avoid attacking snakes that have color patterns similar to poisonous snakes.
Identify the structure that contains the inherited instructions that determine the different color patterns in these snakes. *
Base your answers to questions 12 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
Scientists studied the distribution of a species of pocket mouse that lived in the sandy desert regions of the southwestern United States. They are eaten by a variety of predators. Pocket mice are active at night, and feed on seeds and grasses. A single female mouse can reproduce several times each year, producing a litter of 3 to 13 offspring each time. Each new litter is considered a generation.
A volcanic eruption that resulted in lava flows changed the color of the area that the mice inhabit from light brown to black. Data from the scientist’s research of the population are shown in the chart below.
State the role of mutation or recombination in the appearance of the trait for black fur color in the pocket mouse population. *
Base your answers to questions 13 on the illustration and information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The illustration is of a species commonly called the little brown bat. It has 38 teeth and usually lives near bodies of water. The animal is considered beneficial by many people because it eats mosquitoes and many types of garden pests. They feed at night, detecting their prey by echolocation—a form of sonar similar to what is used on ships. They can determine the location and size of their prey by listening to the return echo.
If a mutation occurs in some of these bats, it may result in a new inheritable trait that makes them better able to catch insects than other bats in the population. Describe what will most likely happen to the frequency of the original trait in the population. Support your answer. *
Base your answers to questions 14 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Guppies are small, tropical freshwater fish that display wide variation in coloration. Some have bright splotches of blue, red, and orange, while others are quite drab and dull. Research has shown that females prefer to mate with brightly colored males; however, this trait makes them more likely to be seen. Guppies, like all species, must be able to both sur- vive and reproduce in order to avoid extinction.
Identify one process that is responsible for the variations in coloration observed in guppies. *
Base your answers to questions 15 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Female mosquitoes need a meal of blood from a person or other animal in order to produce eggs. It has been discovered that mosquitoes have cells on their antennae that can detect the insect repellent known as DEET. The repellent is not harmful to mosquitoes, but when mosquitoes detect DEET, they will not land on the surface where the DEET has been applied. This protects people from being bitten by mosquitoes.
Recently, scientists found some mosquitoes that are resistant to DEET because they do not detect its presence. They bred these mosquitoes and eventually produced a population consisting of about 50% DEET-resistant insects.
Identify the process most likely responsible for a mosquito initially becoming resistant to DEET. *