Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Diseases Related To Genes

    Base your answers to questions 1 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Blood Doping

    Some athletes who compete in endurance events, such as marathon runners or cyclists, believe that they will be more competitive if they can increase the number of red blood cells in their bloodstreams. One way of increasing the number of red blood cells in an athlete is to engage in blood doping.

    Blood doping is an illegal practice in which athletes harvest their own blood months before a competition, isolate the red blood cells, and freeze them. Just before the date of the competition, the blood cells are returned to the athlete’s bloodstream. Another type of blood doping involves using donated blood from another person (blood transfusions). In either case, the athlete will have more red blood cells available than competitors who do not engage in blood doping.

    Athletes who use their own blood cells to blood dope often become anemic as a result. Anemia is a condition caused by a lack of red blood cells and/or iron in the blood. Iron is a necessary part of the pigment used to carry oxygen to the cells. Athletes who use donated blood to blood dope also run the risk of contracting a blood-borne disease.


    Base your answers to questions 10 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of exposure to UV light on the growth of bacteria. Equal quantities of bacteria were spread on 5 petri dishes containing nutrient agar. Half of each petri dish was exposed to UV light for various amounts of time, and the other half was protected from the UV light with a UV screen. After the UV treat- ment, the bacteria were grown in an incubator for 24 hours, and the number of colonies was counted. The diagram below represents the initial set up.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv82015-exam_g12.png

    The table below contains the data collected by counting the number of bacterial colonies growing on both the screen-covered side and the unscreened side.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv82015-exam_g13.png

    Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below, following the directions below.


    Base your answers to questions 12 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Medical Mystery

    Recently, an elderly man went to a hospital. He felt tired and was coughing and dehydrated. At first, the doctor thought he had pneumonia, but an x ray showed a spot on his lung. Because the man was a smoker, the doctor expected to find a tumor.

    Instead, the surgeon discovered a pea seed growing inside the man’s lung. When the pea seedling was removed, the patient quickly regained his health.


    Base your answers to questions 13 on the illustration and information below and on your knowledge of biology. The illustration is of a Tasmanian devil.

    homeostasis and immunity, immune response, homeostasis and immunity, immune response fig: lenv62016-examw_g25.png

    The Tasmanian devil is the largest surviving carnivorous marsupial in Australia. It is in danger of extinction due to an unusual type of cancer called Devil Facial Tumor Disease (DFTD). It can be passed from one individual to another through wounds that occur when they fight over food. Tumor cells in the mouth of an infected animal break off and enter the wound on an uninfected animal. The tumor cells multiply in the body of the newly infected devil, forming new tumors that eventually kill the animal.

    Recent research has shown that the immune system of a Tasmanian devil accepts tumor cells from another devil as if they were cells from its own body. The tumor cells are ignored by the immune system. No immune response develops against them, and the cancerous cells multiply. Scientists predict that DFTD could wipe out all the remaining Tasmanian devils in 25 years, unless a treatment is developed.


    Base your answers to questions 14 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Breast Cancer Research

    Most deaths that are a result of breast cancer occur because the cancer cells metastasize (spread) from the breast to other organs. As they metastasize, cancer cells travel through the bloodstream.

    MicroRNA molecules are involved in both the movement and control of metastasized cells. One microRNA, known as miR-7, shuts down a protein that helps cancer cells travel through the blood.

    Understanding how miR-7 interacts with cancer cells may lead to new treatments for certain types of cancer. Since certain levels of miR-7 expression can also stimulate the development of cancer cells, the use of miR-7 to treat cancer will have to be studied in more detail. Researchers are hoping that eventually levels of miR-7 will be used to diagnose, treat, and prevent the spread of cancer in an individual.