Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Regents Test, Full Exam Practice Online: living environment January 2012

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    Base your answers to questions 31 through 33 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Euglena are single-celled organisms that live in ponds. All euglena have chloroplasts and can make their own food. They can also take in food from the environment. The diagram below represents a euglena.

    scientific inquiry, hypothesis and experiment design fig: lenv12012-exam_g5.png

    An experiment was set up to determine the effect of nitrates, a pollutant, on the number of chloroplasts present in euglena. Five tanks were set up, each with euglena and a different concentration of nitrate solution: 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%.

    The tanks were placed in a sunny location where each tank received the same amount of light.

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    Base your answers to questions 41 and 42 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents various levels of interaction between organisms in a prairie ecosystem.

    ecology, materials cycle through ecosystems fig: lenv12012-exam_g12.png

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    Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Diabetes is a disease characterized by consistently high blood glucose levels (at or above 126 mg/100 mL) as a result of hormone deficiency. For a study of diabetes, blood glucose levels from individual A and individual B were recorded each hour over a 5-hour period following a meal. The results are shown in the data table below.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv12012-exam_g15.png

    Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid on the next page, following the directions below.

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    Base your answers to questions 49 and 50 on the food chain and information below. The food chain involves organisms in Yellowstone National Park.

    Grasses → Elk → Wolves

    Wolves in the park were killed or driven off by humans in the 1920s and 1930s. In the winter of 1995, humans released 17 wolves from Canada into the park. A year later, 14 more wolves were released.

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    Base your answer to question 51 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) can be found in an aquatic ecosystem and is often one factor that affects the size of populations of aquatic organisms. Water temperature is very important in determining the amount of DO in a water supply. The colder the temperature of the water, the more DO the water can hold.

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    Base your answers to questions 52 through 54 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Polio is a virus that can cause paralysis or death. At its peak, the disease affected about 500,000 people a year worldwide before the development of an effective vaccine in 1955.

    When the first polio vaccine was developed, it was tested in experiments using thousands of children as subjects. The children were injected with either the experimental vaccine or given a harmless injection without the vaccine. Only after these extensive tests was the vaccine finally accepted as being successful in preventing the disease.

    Although, at this time, polio has been nearly eliminated in the Western Hemisphere, certain countries in the world still report new cases of the disease. Complete elimination of the disease can be achieved in these countries by vaccinating all of the children at the same time with the polio vaccine.

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    Base your answer to question 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    In many areas, there are some small mammals whose fur color is influenced by temperature. In these animals, the trait for fur color is expressed only if the air temperature is above a certain level. In cold weather, when the ground is covered with snow, the trait is not expressed and the fur color is white.

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    Base your answer to question 56-60 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    New varieties of organisms have resulted from human activities. These organisms have often led to problems in modern society. Two of these new varieties are listed below.

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria Pesticide-resistant insects

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    Base your answer to question 61-63 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Green Tea & Acne

    Green tea might be an effective treatment for acne, according to a study by researchers from Memorial Medical Center in the Philippines, reported by United Press International (UPI). The study showed that 3 percent green tea cream is comparable to 4 percent benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of moderate to severe acne.

    Green tea has been shown to fight bacteria, reduce inflammation and decrease hormone activity — three characteristics that make the ancient tea an excellent candidate for an acne therapy.

    In the study, one group of subjects applied benzoyl peroxide cream twice daily for 12 weeks and another used green tea extract cream twice daily for the same period. Patients received identical bottles of cream and were unaware of the type of treatment they were assigned. The researchers noted the green tea cream seemed to lighten patients’ [acne] and improve the overall appearance of their complexion.

    The preliminary data suggest green tea extract cream causes fewer side effects than benzoyl peroxide treatment. Patients in the green tea group reported fewer cases of dry skin, itching and allergic responses. Azucena Arguelles, MD, a private practice dermatologist from Mountain View, CA, told UPI that the findings, while promising, are not yet substantial enough to change clinical practice.

    Advance for Nurses, Nov. 10, 2003, “Green Tea & Acne,” www.advanceweb.com

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    Base your answers to questions 64 and 65 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Raw eggs and undercooked poultry may contain Salmonella bacteria. These bacteria can cause food poisoning by invading the cells lining the small intestine and producing a toxin that causes inflammation in the intestine. Symptoms usually appear 24 to 48 hours after the bacteria are ingested. Symptoms include fever, diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and abdominal pain that may last for several days.

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    Base your answer to question 69-72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Environmentalists and public health experts are warning the public about some chemicals that they come in contact with daily, such as PBDEs and phthalates. PBDEs are used to make children’s clothing flame retardant and phthalates are used to manufacture many plastic bottles, toys, and cosmetics. Both of these chemicals accumulate in the body and endanger health.

    In one family tested, the young children had PBDE levels seven times that of their parents. These levels were two to three times the levels that caused thyroid problems in animals. Animal studies have shown that phthalates cause reproductive defects. Even at low levels, phthalates may contribute to infertility and impaired testes in males. Both chemicals can cause nervous system damage.

    Biomonitoring is a technology used to test for levels of industrial chemicals found in the body. The technology is less than ten years old, but results from animal studies led some countries to ban PBDEs in 2004.

    Presently, the United States EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) does not require chemical manufacturers to conduct human toxicity studies prior to approval for use. If concerns regarding risk or exposure arise during the approval process, the EPA can ask for additional testing. Additional testing occurs for approximately 10 percent of the new chemicals submitted each year. The EPA has also set up voluntary testing programs with major chemical manufacturers to rate some of the 3,000 most widely used chemicals.

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    Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Five students design an experiment to answer the question: “How is heart rate affected by running?” Two chairs were set up at different ends of a large room. The pulse rate of each student was taken at rest just before running. Each of the five students ran between the chairs a different number of times. Their pulse rates were taken after running and the results are shown in the table below.

    labs, lab, making connections fig: lenv12012-exam_g18.png

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    Base your answers to questions 78 through 80 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The sequences below represent the same portions of a DNA molecule from the same gene used by a student to study the relationship between two plant species. A biological catalyst that recognizes the CCGG site is used to cut the DNA molecules into pieces. The catalyst cuts the DNA between the C and G of the site.

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    Base your answer to question 81 on the information and diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The drawings below were made during a laboratory exercise in which a microscope was used to view slides of preserved protozoa. The microscope had a 10× eyepiece and two different objectives.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv12012-exam_g20.png

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    Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    labs, lab, the beaks of finches fig: lenv12012-exam_g22.png

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