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The cell represented below produces oxygen.
Which structure allows the passage of this oxygen to the environment?*
The diagram below represents a cell and several molecules. The number of molecules shown represents the relative concentration of the molecules inside and outside of the cell.
Molecule B could enter the cell as a direct result of*
Which two terms are considered to be opposite processes?*
Which statement concerning cell communication is correct?*
A towel placed on a lawn for a length of time can cause the grass beneath it to lose its green color. The most probable explanation for this is that darkness*
Which sequence correctly represents the arrangement of structures containing genetic material, from the largest to the smallest size?*
The DNA of a fly and the DNA of a gorilla are made up of subunits that are*
The diagram below represents one process that might occur in cells.
Which process is represented in the diagram?*
The way a protein molecule is folded determines the shape of the molecule, which determines the*
In order for a species to evolve, it must be able to*
Domestic horses have a greater diversity of coat colors than that of wild horses. The process that led to a greater diversity of coat colors in domes- tic horses is*
A population of white moths lives in a forest near a factory. This factory burns coal and pollutes the air with black dust. Over time, this dust has settled on the trees in the area, making them darker in color. This could result in*
The crucian carp, a Scandinavian fish, thrives in shallow ponds that freeze over during winter. While other creatures in the pond die from lack of oxygen, these carp are able to obtain energy through a biochemical pathway that does not require oxygen. This characteristic is an example of a*
Examination of ancient rock layers at a certain location reveals many different fossils. Which conclusion can be drawn concerning the species that formed these fossils?*
Breathing rate is constantly being monitored and adjusted in the human body, which results in*
Modern technology could be used to clone pet dogs and cats. The cloned animals would resemble the original pets because*
The colors and scents of plants attract helpful insects and repel insects that feed on them. The production of the proteins that provide these colors and scents is the direct result of the*
Which situation would be part of the normal reproductive cycle of a human?*
What is the primary source of energy for all the organisms in the ecosystem represented below?
Which statement best describes enzymes?*
More energy can be released from a fat molecule than from a glucose molecule because the fat molecule contains more*
People who have AIDS are more likely than others to become ill with multiple infections because the pathogen that causes AIDS*
Which organism would most likely have new gene combinations?*
A certain fungus can be harmful when it infects the outermost layers of the human foot, while another type of fungus can be beneficial when it recycles nutrients by breaking down dead organisms. Which terms identify these two roles of fungi?*
Shawangunk Grasslands National Wildlife Refuge has been developed from an abandoned airport to restore habitat for six species of birds that require an area rich in tall grasses. Workers must continually remove trees that are beginning to invade the area as a result of*
In order for an ecosystem to remain stable there must be*
Some data suggest that the average global temperature will increase by 1°C–2°C by the year 2050. If this occurs, a major concern for humans would most likely be that*
A wetland provides a variety of services for an ecosystem, such as filtering pollutants from the water, allowing animals to lay eggs and reproduce, and producing fertile soils for plants. When humans build houses on wetland areas, they always*
Which occurrence most likely led to the other three?*
A community is trying to decide on the location for a new shopping center. Two possible locations have been proposed, with each location having some benefits and some problems. The proper approach to deciding the best location would be to*
A diagram of the actual size of a peppered moth wingspan is shown below.
An estimated length of the wingspan could be*
An investigation was carried out to determine which of three antibacterial soaps is most effective. Four petri dishes labeled A, B, C, and D were set up. The same amount and type of bacteria was added to each dish. Next, 2 mL of a different brand of soap were added to dishes B, C, and D. Then, 2 mL of water were added to dish A, instead of soap. The dishes were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. At the end of the investigation, the amount of bacteria in each dish was determined. Dish D had the least bacteria. It was concluded that the soap in dish D was the most effective soap to use against bacteria.
Which statement best describes the validity of this conclusion?*
Which statement is a valid inference concerning structure X represented in the diagram below?
The diagram below represents a food web composed of producers, consumers, and decomposers.
Which group would represent the decomposer organisms?*
The chart below shows three ecological terms used to describe levels of organization on Earth.
Which diagram best represents the relationship of these ecological terms?*
The diagram below represents some changes that took place in a bacterial population recently exposed to an antibiotic.
Which statement would best explain the presence of bacteria on day 4?*
Two different species of single-celled organisms that eat the same food were placed in the same container. A constant food supply was provided starting on day 2, and the populations were monitored daily. The graph below represents the growth of the two populations.
The most likely reason for the observed changes in the populations over the 18-day period is*
Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents the reproductive systems of the human female and male.
In which structure would both mitosis and differentiation of an embryo occur?*
In which structure do gametes usually unite to produce a zygote?*
Which graph best shows the relationship between the amount of biodiversity and the number of different populations in an ecosystem?*
The diagram below represents one possible evolutionary change that could have led lobe-finned fish to develop into the first amphibians. Amphibians are animals that live on land some of their life.
This change from fins on the lobe-finned fish to legs and feet on the early amphibian is most likely due to*
Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Yes, This Big Lizard is Pink
A new study from the University of Rome Tor Vergata shows that a rare strawberry-tinted land iguana [rosada iguana] in the Galapagos Islands is genetically distinct from other iguanas there, having diverged from them more than five million years ago as the archipelago [a group of islands] formed. The rosada iguana—which escaped Darwin’s notice—was discovered only recently, largely because it lives on the desolate slopes of an active volcano.
Source: Smithsonian, March 2009
Which diagram best represents the evolutionary pathway of the strawberry-tinted iguana?
According to information in the article, it is most likely that*
Base your answers to questions 44 and 45 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
A student grew ten tomato plants from seed. After three weeks, the heights of the ten plants were measured in centimeters (cm). The results are shown below.
Tomato plant A = 5 cm Tomato plant F = 9 cm
Tomato plant B = 3 cm Tomato plant G = 7 cm
Tomato plant C = 3 cm Tomato plant H = 5 cm
Tomato plant D = 3 cm Tomato plant I = 3 cm
Tomato plant E = 5 cm Tomato plant J = 7 cm
Organize the data by completing both columns in the data table below, so that the height of the plants increases from the top to the bottom of the table. 
State one likely reason for differences in the heights of the plants. *
The chart below contains characteristics that can be used to classify organisms A, B, and C.
State one reason why organism A and organism C might be placed into two different classification groups, even though they are both single celled. *
Base your answers to questions 47 through 50 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
A keystone species is one whose presence contributes to the diversity of life and whose extinction would lead to the extinction of other forms of life. A keystone species helps to support the ecosystem of which it is a part.
An example of what can happen when a keystone species is removed occurred when fur hunters eliminated sea otters from some Pacific Ocean kelp beds. Otters eat sea urchins, which eat kelp. With its major predator gone, sea urchin populations exploded and consumed most of the kelp. Fish, snails, and other animals associated with the kelp beds disappeared.
The grizzly bear is another example of a keystone species. Grizzlies transfer nutrients from the ocean ecosystem to the forest ecosystem. The first stage of this transfer is performed by salmon that swim up rivers, sometimes for hundreds of miles. Salmon are rich in nitrogen, sulfur, carbon, and phosphorus. The bears capture the salmon and carry them onto dry land, scattering nutrient-rich feces (wastes) and partially eaten salmon carcasses. It has been estimated that the bears leave up to half of the salmon they harvest on the forest floor.
One action humans can take that might ensure that these sea otters will continue their function as a keystone species in their environment is to*
Some people feel the grizzly bear should be eliminated from parts of its natural range. Describe the impact of this proposed action on the forest ecosystems in these areas if the bears are eliminated. Support your answer with information from the passage. *
Which organism is most likely not functioning as a keystone species in its ecosystem?*
Which sequence best represents the feeding relationships in a kelp ecosystem that has not been disturbed by humans?*
State one role of white blood cells at the site of a wound during the healing of the wound. *
Explain why changes in climate can result in the extinction of a species. *
Base your answers to questions 53 through 55 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram compares cell functions with jobs in a factory.
Which two chemical waste products are most likely represented by the smoke above the mitochondrion? 
______________________________________ and _____________________________________________*
What chemical substance produced by the mitochondrion is represented by arrow A? *
Which cell structure synthesized the “Protein being exported”? *
Base your answer to question 56-60 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Poison ivy is a weed that grows in New York State. It synthesizes an oil, urushiol, that causes skin rashes. Researchers have found that if poison ivy grows in an environment that contains an increased concentration of carbon dioxide, the plants grow larger, faster, and produce more urushiol. Because carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are rising, poison ivy might become a hazard to people who work or vacation outdoors.
In order to verify this research, experiments must be carried out. Design an experiment to test whether poison ivy is affected by air containing higher than normal concentrations of carbon dioxide. In your answer, be sure to:
• state the hypothesis the experiment would test 
• state one way the control group should be treated differently from the experimental group 
• identify two conditions that should be kept the same in both the control and the experimental groups 
• describe the type of data to be collected 
• identify one safety precaution that should be taken during the experiment and explain why it is necessary *
Base your answers to questions 61 and 62 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Invasion of the Giant Rodents
Large, 20-pound rodents [nutria] that were originally from South America are spreading northward from the southern United States.
The nutria were brought in and raised in the southern United States for their fur. Nutria escaped and started a wild population.
They have since moved up the east coast, damaging plant life in Delaware and Maryland. Currently, they have reached New Jersey. These rodents are damaging New Jersey’s marshland ecosystems.
A nutria can eat up to 5 pounds of marshland plants a day. This loss of plant life is harming the marshland ecosystems.
A wildlife manager in New Jersey wants to use poisons to destroy the nutria. State one problem that might result from this action. *
State one reason why the removal of plant life by the nutria can harm marshland ecosystems. *
Base your answers to questions 63 through 66 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Research has shown that plants might chemically change their environment. The roots of certain plants release many chemicals. Some chemicals made by plants can kill nearby plants or discourage herbivores from eating them. Other plant chemicals kill plant pathogens such as bacteria and fungi.
State two ways that the release of these chemicals is beneficial to these plants. 
Predict what would happen to the size of the population of these plants if other plants in the area began releasing similar chemicals. Support your answer. 
Predict what would happen to the herbivore population if many plants in the area made protective chemicals. Support your answer. *
Predict one way the carnivores in the area could be affected by the production of protective chemicals by plants. Support your answer. *
Base your answer to question 67-70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
An Experimental SARS Vaccine Works in Animals
Scientists reported that they had protected animals from the effects of the SARS virus by using an experimental vaccine. The SARS virus causes an acute respiratory illness in humans and other animals.
This vaccine was sprayed once into the nostrils of each of four African green monkeys. Four weeks later, these monkeys were exposed to the virus that causes SARS. The monkeys showed no sign of the disease in their respiratory tracts. Blood tests confirmed the presence of proteins known as neutralizing antibodies that indicate protection against disease.
The scientists also sprayed a placebo (a substance that did not contain the vaccine) into the nostrils of each of four other African green monkeys. After exposure to the virus that causes SARS, all of these monkeys developed symptoms of this condition.
Briefly explain the nature of a vaccine and some steps that should be taken before a vaccine is available for public use. In your answer, be sure to include:
• a description of what a vaccine is 
• an explanation of why one group had a placebo sprayed into their nostrils before exposure to the virus 
• an explanation of why scientists used monkeys to test the SARS vaccine 
• a statement of what could be done to verify the results *
Base your answers to questions 71 and 72 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram identifies four groups that can have an effect on air quality in New York State.
Identify one specific air-quality problem caused by pollution that affects New York State. *
Select one of the four groups and record its name on the space below. Describe one way the group you selected could help to improve the air quality in New York State. 
Base your answers to questions 73 through 75 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
Which two finches could temporarily occupy the same niche?*
Several of the Galapagos Islands are inhabited by grasshoppers, beetles, flies, bees, and butterflies. Finches that feed on these consumers would have beaks adapted for*
Farmers on a few of the Galapagos Islands have orchards of oranges, apples, grapes, and pears. Which species of finch would consume these foods?*
Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram shows the evolutionary relationships of some organisms.
Which two organisms would most likely synthesize the most similar enzymes?*
Scientists want to compare the DNA of these organisms. Identify a technique that could be used to produce bands of DNA fragments for this comparison. *
Base your answers to questions 78 through 80 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
DNA samples were taken from three different species and used to determine the amino acid sequence for a portion of a particular protein. The amino acids were then compared in order to determine which species were most closely related. Some of the information is shown on the table below.
TGA ACU THR AGA UCU SER
Using the information given, fill in the missing mRNA base sequences in the table for species B and species C. *
Using the Universal Genetic Code Chart below, fill in the missing amino acid sequences in the table for species A and species B. 
State one specific effect on the protein produced if an mRNA code is changed from AGU to AGA. *
In an experiment to test the effect of exercise on the number of times a clothespin can be squeezed in 1 minute, the dependent variable would be the*
Base your answers to questions 82 through 84 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
In an experiment, students placed a dialysis bag containing 100 mL of a starch-water mixture in a beaker of water, as shown below. They left the setup until class the next day, when they removed the dialysis bag and measured the volume of the contents. They found that there were now 125 mL of the starch-water mixture.
To measure the volume of the starch-water mixture in the dialysis bag, the students should have used a*
Identify the process that caused the increase in volume. *
Identify one organ in the human body where this process occurs and identify one substance that moves into the blood at that location. 
State one possible reason a certain substance can not pass across a cell membrane. *