Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Regents Test, Full Exam Practice Online: living environment August 2012

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    Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents the reproductive systems of the human female and male.

    reproduction and development, defferentiation and embryonic development fig: lenv82012-exam_g14.png

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    Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Yes, This Big Lizard is Pink

    A new study from the University of Rome Tor Vergata shows that a rare strawberry-tinted land iguana [rosada iguana] in the Galapagos Islands is genetically distinct from other iguanas there, having diverged from them more than five million years ago as the archipelago [a group of islands] formed. The rosada iguana—which escaped Darwin’s notice—was discovered only recently, largely because it lives on the desolate slopes of an active volcano.

    Source: Smithsonian, March 2009

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    Base your answers to questions 44 and 45 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A student grew ten tomato plants from seed. After three weeks, the heights of the ten plants were measured in centimeters (cm). The results are shown below.

    Tomato plant A = 5 cm Tomato plant F = 9 cm

    Tomato plant B = 3 cm Tomato plant G = 7 cm

    Tomato plant C = 3 cm Tomato plant H = 5 cm

    Tomato plant D = 3 cm Tomato plant I = 3 cm

    Tomato plant E = 5 cm Tomato plant J = 7 cm

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    Base your answers to questions 47 through 50 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Keystone Species

    A keystone species is one whose presence contributes to the diversity of life and whose extinction would lead to the extinction of other forms of life. A keystone species helps to support the ecosystem of which it is a part.

    An example of what can happen when a keystone species is removed occurred when fur hunters eliminated sea otters from some Pacific Ocean kelp beds. Otters eat sea urchins, which eat kelp. With its major predator gone, sea urchin populations exploded and consumed most of the kelp. Fish, snails, and other animals associated with the kelp beds disappeared.

    The grizzly bear is another example of a keystone species. Grizzlies transfer nutrients from the ocean ecosystem to the forest ecosystem. The first stage of this transfer is performed by salmon that swim up rivers, sometimes for hundreds of miles. Salmon are rich in nitrogen, sulfur, carbon, and phosphorus. The bears capture the salmon and carry them onto dry land, scattering nutrient-rich feces (wastes) and partially eaten salmon carcasses. It has been estimated that the bears leave up to half of the salmon they harvest on the forest floor.

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    Base your answers to questions 53 through 55 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram compares cell functions with jobs in a factory.

    organization and patterns in Life, cell energetics, cellular respiration and APT fig: lenv82012-exam_g24.png

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    Base your answer to question 56-60 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Poison ivy is a weed that grows in New York State. It synthesizes an oil, urushiol, that causes skin rashes. Researchers have found that if poison ivy grows in an environment that contains an increased concentration of carbon dioxide, the plants grow larger, faster, and produce more urushiol. Because carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are rising, poison ivy might become a hazard to people who work or vacation outdoors.

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    Base your answers to questions 61 and 62 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Invasion of the Giant Rodents

    Large, 20-pound rodents [nutria] that were originally from South America are spreading northward from the southern United States.

    The nutria were brought in and raised in the southern United States for their fur. Nutria escaped and started a wild population.

    They have since moved up the east coast, damaging plant life in Delaware and Maryland. Currently, they have reached New Jersey. These rodents are damaging New Jersey’s marshland ecosystems.

    A nutria can eat up to 5 pounds of marshland plants a day. This loss of plant life is harming the marshland ecosystems.

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    Base your answers to questions 63 through 66 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Research has shown that plants might chemically change their environment. The roots of certain plants release many chemicals. Some chemicals made by plants can kill nearby plants or discourage herbivores from eating them. Other plant chemicals kill plant pathogens such as bacteria and fungi.

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    Base your answer to question 67-70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    An Experimental SARS Vaccine Works in Animals

    Scientists reported that they had protected animals from the effects of the SARS virus by using an experimental vaccine. The SARS virus causes an acute respiratory illness in humans and other animals.

    This vaccine was sprayed once into the nostrils of each of four African green monkeys. Four weeks later, these monkeys were exposed to the virus that causes SARS. The monkeys showed no sign of the disease in their respiratory tracts. Blood tests confirmed the presence of proteins known as neutralizing antibodies that indicate protection against disease.

    The scientists also sprayed a placebo (a substance that did not contain the vaccine) into the nostrils of each of four other African green monkeys. After exposure to the virus that causes SARS, all of these monkeys developed symptoms of this condition.

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    Base your answers to questions 71 and 72 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram identifies four groups that can have an effect on air quality in New York State.

    human influences on the environment, human influences on global stabilities of ecosystems fig: lenv82012-exam_g26.png

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    Base your answers to questions 73 through 75 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    labs, lab, the beaks of finches fig: lenv82012-exam_g27.png

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    Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram shows the evolutionary relationships of some organisms.

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv82012-exam_g28.png

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    Base your answers to questions 78 through 80 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    DNA samples were taken from three different species and used to determine the amino acid sequence for a portion of a particular protein. The amino acids were then compared in order to determine which species were most closely related. Some of the information is shown on the table below.

    TGA ACU

    TGA ACU THR AGA UCU SER

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv82012-exam_g30.png

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    Base your answers to questions 82 through 84 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    In an experiment, students placed a dialysis bag containing 100 mL of a starch-water mixture in a beaker of water, as shown below. They left the setup until class the next day, when they removed the dialysis bag and measured the volume of the contents. They found that there were now 125 mL of the starch-water mixture.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv82012-exam_g31.png

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