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Which two cell structures work together in the process of protein synthesis?*
Prions are proteins that act as an infectious agent. They cause a variety of diseases, including “Mad Cow” disease. Prions cannot produce more prions on their own, but cause the host organism to replicate more prions. Most scientists do not consider prions to be alive. A valid reason for accepting that prions are nonliving things is that*
Which molecule can diffuse from the digestive tract into the human bloodstream without first being digested?*
The nucleus of a cell coordinates processes and activities that take place in the cell. Which two systems perform a similar function in the human body?*
The letters in the diagram below indicate some parts of a cell.
The function of which cell part is most similar to that of the human excretory system?*
In the summer, the arctic fox appears brown because its cells produce a dark pigment. However, in the winter, the arctic fox appears white because the dark pigment is not produced. The color change is most likely due to the effect of*
Many years ago, a scientist grew pea plants that produced wrinkled peas. The peas from these plants produced new plants that also produced wrinkled peas. The scientist concluded that something in the parent plants was being transmitted to the next generation. This discovery is now known as*
The process represented in the diagram below occurs in many cells.
The main function of this process is to*
The Old English Bulldog is extinct. To produce a new English Bulldog, dogs having the desired physical features, but not the aggressive nature of the old bulldogs, were mated. The result was a bulldog that was similar in appearance to the extinct bulldog, but without its fierce nature. Which technique was most likely used to develop this new variety of dog?*
Base your answers to questions 10 and 11 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents the human female reproductive system.
Structure A usually produces*
The placenta forms from the combination of fetal tissue and tissue from structure*
Which factor has the greatest influence on the development of new, inheritable characteristics?*
In 2007, scientists broke open a fossil of a dinosaur bone and found some preserved tissues. Analysis showed that some proteins in these tissues are very similar to proteins found in modern chickens. The conclusion that these dinosaurs are related to modern chickens is based on*
The diagram below represents the bone arrangements in the front limbs of three different species of mammals.
The similarities and differences in these limbs suggest that all three species developed from the same ancestor, but*
For those individuals who have an allergic reaction to cats, a company in Los Angeles promises relief. They offer a new line of cats genetically modified to eliminate or reduce their allergy-causing properties. The development of this new line of cats most likely involved*
Which process allows a mammal to continue to grow in size?*
In 1970, a deadly disease spread through corn crops in the United States. Scientists discovered that 80 percent of the corn contained the gene that made the plants more likely to be infected with the disease. This problem might have been avoided if the cornfields across the country had had more*
According to the fossil record, which statement is accurate?*
An organism that reproduces asexually will have offspring that have*
Some sea slugs store chloroplasts obtained from algae they have ingested. The chloroplasts continue to carry out photosynthesis within the slugs. What advantage would this activity be to these sea slugs?*
The energy released when sugar molecules are broken down is stored in*
Responses of the immune system to usually harmless environmental substances are known as*
People have been warned about the dangers of excessive exposure to radiation during certain medical procedures. The most likely reason for this warning is that radiation exposure might*
A scientist was studying a population of fish in a pond over a period of 10 years. He observed that the population increased each year for 3 years, and then remained nearly constant for the rest of the study. The best explanation for this observation is that the population had*
Increased human population growth usually results in*
Four levels of an energy pyramid are represented below.
Which statement about this energy pyramid is correct?*
Growing exotic (nonnative) plant species in parks and gardens could lead directly to an increase in the*
Scientists have been concerned about the reduction of shark populations due to overfishing off the east coast of the United States. Sharks feed on rays, which feed on scallops. Scallops feed on microscopic algae, which they filter from seawater. Without sharks, the rays consume and eliminate scallop beds, harming the scallop fishing industry. This situation demonstrates that*
The diagram below represents changes in the sizes of openings present in leaves as a result of the actions of cells X and Y.
The actions of cells X and Y help the plant to*
The diagram represents the changes in an area over time.
This series of changes in the area over hundreds of years is known as*
How much water should be added to the graduated cylinder shown below to increase the volume to 15 milliliters?
Base your answers to questions 32 and 33 on the statement below and on your knowledge of biology.
Scientists have found a gene in the DNA of a certain plant that could be the key to increasing the amount of lycopene, a cancer- fighting substance, in tomatoes.
The process of inserting this gene into the DNA of a tomato plant is known as*
The ability to produce increased amounts of lycopene will be passed on to new tomato cells as a direct result of*
The graph below shows the changes in the num- ber of individuals in a population who have a specific trait.
Which statement concerning this trait is a valid inference?*
Base your answers to questions 35 through 37 on the diagram below and your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents an ameba, a single-celled organism, carrying out an essential life process.
This process represents a step in*
This process is essential to the survival of the ameba because it*
Which two body systems allow humans to carry out the same life process as the ameba in the diagram?*
The diagram below represents how HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, interacts with a certain type of white blood cell called a helper T-cell.
What is one possible result of the cellular activity represented in the diagram?*
The diagram below represents the relationship between natural selection and variation. The arrow between them is labeled X.
Which phrase best indicates the meaning of the arrow labeled X?*
The chart below summarizes the effect of commercial fishing on a local Atlantic cod population over an 9-year period.
According to the chart, it can be concluded that*
The diagram below represents some stages that occur in the formation of an embryo.
Which statement best describes stage X?*
The diagram below represents a sequence of events that occurs in the human body throughout the day.
These events can best be described as an example of*
The graph below shows the changes in the size of a population over a period of time.
Which environmental condition could have caused the change in the population size at A?*
Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
In order to determine the effect of a certain antibiotic on a species of microorganism, an investigation was carried out. A sample of a specific species of microorganism was added to 100 mL of a liquid culture medium. One mL of a solution of the antibiotic was then added to that culture medium. Each day at 10 a.m., 1 mL of the experimental culture medium was removed and the number of microorganisms in the 1-mL sample was determined. The 1 mL of experimental culture medium was replaced by 1 mL of new sterile culture medium to maintain a constant volume. The results are shown in the table below.
Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid, following the directions below.
Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis. *
Plot the data from the table. Surround each point with a small circle and connect the points. 
Why was the 1 mL of experimental culture medium that was removed each day replaced by 1 mL of sterile culture medium? *
The microorganisms present on day 5 were*
Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the diagram of a compound light microscope below and on your knowledge of biology.
The image of the specimen viewed using high power with this microscope will appear larger than when viewed using low power. State one other way the image of the specimen as seen using high power would differ from the image as seen using low power. *
What is the total magnification of this microscope using the high-power objective lens?*
Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph shows interactions of moose and wolf populations on Isle Royale.
What is the relationship between a wolf and a moose?*
State one possible reason for the change in the moose population between 1995 and 1997. *
Base your answers to questions 52 and 53 on the table below and on your knowledge of biology.
Species A, B, C, and D are all different heterotrophs involved in the same food chain in an ecosystem. The table below shows the population of each of these species on one summer day.
Which species is most likely an herbivore? Support your answer with data from the table. 
There are groups of organisms that must be present in this ecosystem that are not shown in the table. Identify one of these groups of organisms and state the role of this group in this ecosystem. 
Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
Identify the type of building block represented by the letters A, B, and C. 
If the sequence of building blocks were changed, what effect could it most likely have on the protein? *
Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
State the specific expected result of administering these vaccines to child B. *
Identify the system that will directly respond to these vaccines, and state the specific expected response. 
Nutrients in a diet, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and minerals, play an important role in homeostasis within the human body. Lack of these nutrients can lead to malfunctions that disrupt this internal balance. Explain how diet can influence homeostasis. In your answer, be sure to:
• select a nutrient from the passage and write it on the line below and state one role this nutrient plays in the body 
• describe, using one specific example, how a decrease in this nutrient can alter homeostasis 
Base your answers to questions 60 through 63 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
A student wants to bake the biggest loaf of bread in the local baking contest. Each contestant must use the same amounts of flour, sugar, and yeast, but is allowed to vary the type of sugar. Yeast is a microorganism that carries out cellular respiration, which produces carbon dioxide, making the bread rise. The student designs an experiment using the setup below to determine which sugar source (glucose, sucrose, or fructose) will cause the yeast to produce the most carbon dioxide and therefore, the biggest loaf of bread.
State one hypothesis this experiment would test. *
Describe the specific type of data to be collected. *
In addition to bottles A, B, and C, the student sets up a control bottle, D. Write the contents of bottle D on the blank line on the diagram below. 
State one assumption the student makes in deciding which type of sugar should be used to produce the biggest loaf of bread. *
Some owners of beautifully landscaped homes along the shores of the Finger Lakes use fertilizer on their lawns. When it rains, some fertilizer is washed into the lakes and causes increased plant growth in the lakes. State one effect that this increased plant growth could have on the aquatic ecosystem. *
Base your answers to questions 65 through 68 on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagrams represent how various populations interact in a forest environment.
Which diagram, A or B, most accurately represents interactions between biotic and abiotic factors in a forest environment? Support your answer. 
State what would most likely happen to one other population in this food web if all the squirrels and rabbits were suddenly killed by a viral disease. Support your answer. *
If this forest community experienced a severe lack of rain throughout the spring and summer seasons, state what effect this drought could have on the grouse population. Support your answer. *
State one possible reason why the deer population could remain relatively constant, even though the number of berry bushes and berries varies from year to year. *
Base your answer to question 69-72 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.
At an observatory in Mauna Loa, Hawaii, scientists have been measuring and collecting data related to changes in the atmosphere since the 1950s. The remote location of the observatory makes it ideal for studying atmospheric conditions that can cause climate change. One specific measurement taken is the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Information for a 7-year period is shown in the graph below.
Analyze the data shown in the graph. In your answer, be sure to:
• state the overall relationship between time and carbon dioxide levels 
• state one possible cause for the overall change in the carbon dioxide levels shown in the graph 
• identify the biological process that might account for the decreases in carbon dioxide levels 
• identify two actions carried out by humans that could lower carbon dioxide levels *
Base your answers to questions 73 and 74 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
Finches on the Galapagos Islands are thought to have originated from South America and to have evolved into new species over the last 10,000 years. Some of this evolution is represented in the diagram below.
The success of the finches on the Galapagos was most likely due to the*
The seed-eating finch was most likely the*
Base your answers to questions 75 and 76 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
A student is opening and closing clothes- pins as part of a lab activity. The student begins to experience muscle fatigue, and the rate at which the student is opening and closing the clothespins slows.
The fatigue is due to*
In order for the muscle fatigue to end, the muscle cells must be provided with*
Base your answers to questions 77 and 78 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The chart describes the beaks of various types of birds that live in a small island ecosystem containing flowering land plants, aquatic plants, many small mammals, amphibians, and several species of trees.
Identify the beak type that would be characteristic of predators of small mammals. 
Identify one kind of bird that would show an immediate decrease in number if the flowering land plants were destroyed by an environmental change. Support your answer. *
To determine the effect of fatigue on the action of muscles, each of five boys was given a 12-cm clothespin and each of five girls was given a 10-cm clothespin. The students squeezed the clothespins for 30 seconds and recorded the results. After the first trial, the girls rested and the boys jogged in place for 1 minute. A second trial was then done to determine how many times each student could squeeze the clothespin in 45 seconds. Identify one error in the design of this experiment. *
The diagram below represents the results of chromatography of leaf pigments from four plant species, A, B, C, and D.
Which plant species has pigments most similar to those in A? Support your answer using data from the chromatogram. 
Plant species: ________________________________*
Base your answers to questions 81 and 82 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a model cell setup. The locations of three different substances are indicated in the diagram.
Which statement best describes what will most likely happen after several minutes?*
Which row in the chart below best explains the movement of some molecules between the model cell and the solution in the beaker?
Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the chart below and on your knowledge of biology. The DNA Sequences chart shows a portion of the code for insulin in humans and cows. These DNA sequences are repeated in the Human Insulin and Cow Insulin charts.
In the DNA Sequences chart, circle the number over each three-letter portion of the DNA that is different in humans and cows. 
For each number circled for the DNA sequences above, write the complementary mRNA base sequence in the Human Insulin and Cow Insulin charts that each of these circled portions would produce. Be sure to complete only the circled portions. 
Use the Universal Genetic Code Chart below to determine the amino acid coded for by each mRNA base sequence written in the Human Insulin and Cow Insulin charts.