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Fish absorb oxygen through the gills, earth- worms absorb oxygen through the skin, amebas take in oxygen through the cell membranes, and cows inhale oxygen through the nasal passages into their lungs. This statement demonstrates that living things*
In New York State, small farms that were abandoned many years ago have become hardwood forests. This is an example of*
Goats have been genetically modified to produce an anticlotting protein in their milk. The protein is extracted from the milk and given to people who have inherited a disorder that causes their bodies to produce blood clots, which can be fatal. A benefit of the technology used to produce this protein is that it*
The diagram below represents factors that affect New York State ecosystems.
An increase in human activity at X would most likely result in*
Which graph correctly represents the pattern of human population growth over the past 5000 years?*
The fossil record of ancient life forms provides scientific evidence of*
Spider plants can reproduce both sexually and asexually. The diagram below represents a spider plant reproducing asexually by a method known as vegetative propagation.
Which statement best describes the relationship between the parent plant and the offspring in the diagram?*
The processes of deletion, insertion, and substitution can alter genes in a skin cell. The altered genes will most likely be passed on to*
Before starch can enter a cell, it must be*
In a cell, protein synthesis is the primary function of*
In a multicellular organism, organs carry out a variety of life functions. In a single-celled organism, these functions are performed by*
Chlorophyll gives plants their green color. Chlorophyll is produced only when plants are exposed to light, so plants kept in darkness have no chlorophyll and appear white. The best explanation for this is that*
In order for the human body to maintain homeostasis, the breakdown of glucose to release energy must be followed by the*
In the past, humans developed varieties of dogs, such as the German shepherd and the bearded collie, using*
In an organism, a muscle cell has the same DNA as a nerve cell, yet the cells perform different functions. This is possible because*
Which sequence best represents sexual reproduction?*
The reproductive system of a male mammal provides*
The energy used to obtain, transfer, and transport materials within an organism comes directly from*
The failure of the human body to effectively maintain dynamic equilibrium can result in*
Melanoma is a type of cancer in which abnormal skin cells divide uncontrollably. Some chemotherapy drugs, which stop the growth of the cancer, directly interfere with the process of*
Riding a bicycle requires balance and constant adjustment and monitoring by the rider in order to continue cycling. Successfully riding a bicycle most directly results from the ability to*
The first successful transplant of insulin- producing cells from a living donor pancreas was completed in April 2000 in Japan. This enabled the body of the recipient to*
A study was done on three different fish species living in a pond in New York State. The influence of temperature on the growth rates of the fish populations is shown in the graph below.
In this pond where these fish live, temperature is a*
A 6-year-old child ate a peanut butter sandwich at snack time in school. Five minutes later, her throat became swollen and she collapsed. This allergic reaction occurred because her body*
Which type of organism helps to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide?*
Which statement best describes an ecosystem maintaining a state of approximate equilibrium?*
In some parts of the world, forests are being cut down and burned to clear land for new homes and new farmland. A negative effect of these activities might be*
The photograph below shows two penguins of the same species displaying different feather color patterns.
The newly discovered all-black penguin had only black feathers since emerging from the egg. The sudden appearance of this characteristic was most likely due to*
The diagram below represents different stages of an ecosystem over a period of time.
Which stage of the ecosystem has the greatest long-term stability?*
The diagram below represents the same field of mice hunted by a hawk over a period of three months.
The overall changes in the population of mice can be explained best by*
Testosterone directly affects the*
Base your answers to questions 32 through 34 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a food web in an ecosystem.
If the population of hawks in this area increases, their prey populations might decrease. Later, with fewer prey, the hawk population might decrease. The prey populations might then increase. This is an example of*
Missing from the diagram of this ecosystem are the*
Which row in the chart below best identifies the relationship between the mice and the wheat?
The diagram below represents a sequence of events that occurs in living things.
Letter X represents*
In the cells of the human body, oxygen molecules are used directly in a process that*
Which statement explains the importance of maintaining a constant internal environment to ensure proper enzyme functioning?*
Base your answers to questions 38 through 41 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The Galapagos pink land iguana, Conolophus marthae (C. marthae), is native to only one of the Galapagos Islands. Its entire range is currently limited to Wolf Volcano on Isabella Island. The iguana was first discovered on this island in 1986. Genetic studies of the animal began sometime later, and it was identified as a species separate from other iguana populations on the Galapagos in 2009. Its population might have been as high as 100 in 1986, but now there might be as few as 10 of the animals left alive.
Other evidence indicates that this species could have diverged from another line of iguanas about 5.7 million years ago. After that, the other line of iguanas diverged into two other species, C. pallidus and C. subcristatus.
In the future, the current population of about ten pink land iguanas will probably*
The testing that revealed that these iguanas are a separate species from the other iguanas present in the Galapagos most likely included*
One likely reason for the existence of these pink land iguanas today is that their ancestors*
Which evolutionary tree best represents the information about the pink land iguana provided in the passage?*
The diagram below represents specialized cells in the surface of the leaf of a green plant.
The main function of these cells is to*
Which diagram correctly represents a step in the normal process of human reproduction?
Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the data table below and on your knowledge of biology. The data table shows the number of breeding pairs of bald eagles in New York State from 1991 to 2003.
Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below, following the directions below.
Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis. *
Plot the data on the grid. Surround each point with a small circle and connect the points. 
State one possible reason for the increase in the number of breeding pairs of bald eagles in New York State. *
In which time period did New York State see the largest increase in breeding pairs of bald eagles?*
Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph shows the size of a population over time.
State one reason for the changes in population size represented by line A between years 5 and 10. *
Which term best identifies line B in the graph?*
Base your answers to questions 50 through 52 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.
A student conducts an experiment to determine how the amount of light affects the rate of oxygen production in a plant. The graph represents the rate of oxygen produced for one trial, X, in the experiment. By the end of the experiment, the plant had not reached maximum oxygen production.
If a student supplies more light than was received during trial X, a bar placed on the graph to represent the results would most likely be*
The diagram below represents a cell from the plant being used in the study. Draw an arrow to a cell structure directly responsible for oxygen production in this cell. The tip of the arrow must touch the cell structure. 
Identify the biochemical process occurring in this cell that produces the oxygen. 
Base your answer to question 53 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Botulinum toxin is a protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It causes a serious form of food poisoning in humans. In a very dilute form, it is also commonly used to eliminate some signs of aging, such as wrinkles. It does this by preventing nerves from releasing a chemical messenger called acetylcholine into the synapse (space between a nerve cell and a muscle cell). The toxin affects the process that causes the muscle cell to contract and form wrinkles.
The diagram below represents a process that is involved in the formation of wrinkles. Complete the diagram by drawing an appropriate structure on the muscle cell membrane that would allow the nerve cell to communicate with the muscle cell. 
Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the scatter-plot graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph shows changes in the percentage of vancomycin-resistant bacteria in a population between the years 1983 and 2001.
Explain why the percentage of resistant bacteria increased over time. *
State what scientists might do to successfully combat bacteria that are resistant to vancomycin. *
When insects are accidentally transported from one country to a new habitat in another country, the population of these insects often increases rapidly. State one environmental factor in the new habitat that would account for this increase in the population. *
Base your answer to question 57-60 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The year 2010 was declared the International Year of Biodiversity. However, significant loss of biodiversity is still occurring. Researchers around the world are working on a variety of ways to protect natural resources. According to an article in Science News, March 13, 2010, “reversing the downward spiral of biodiversity will take more than protecting wild places, but that’s where scientists are starting.”
Explain the importance of biodiversity to an ecosystem. In your answer, be sure to:
• state one effect of a loss of biodiversity in an ecosystem 
• identify a source of variation within a species that leads to biodiversity 
• identify one specific ecosystem that has shown a decrease in biodiversity and state one cause of the decrease in biodiversity in the ecosystem you identified 
• identify one human activity, other than setting up protected wildlife areas, that has helped to preserve biodiversity *
Base your answer to question 61-64 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Scientists have been experimenting with different forms of alternate energy to help reduce the amount of fossil fuels that are burned. They studied yeast, which convert plant materials into ethanol, a form of alcohol that can be used in automobiles. These experi- ments were carried out at room temperature. The scientists wondered whether more ethanol would be produced at different temperatures.
Design an experiment to determine the effect of temperature on ethanol production by yeast. In your answer, be sure to:
• state one hypothesis the experiment would test 
• state how the control group would be treated differently from the experimental group 
• identify two factors that must be kept the same in both the experimental and control groups 
• identify the independent variable in the experiment *
Base your answers to questions 65 and 66 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
Smoking is Dumb
A study by Prof. Mark Weiner of Tel Aviv University’s Department of Psychiatry and the Sheba Medical Center of Tel Hashomer Hospital has determined that young men who smoke are likely to have lower IQs than their nonsmoking peers. Tracking 18- to 21-year- old men enlisted in the Israeli army in the largest study of its kind, he has been able to demonstrate an important connection between the number of cigarettes young males smoke and their IQ.
The average IQ for a nonsmoker was about 101, while the smokers’ average was more than seven IQ points lower at about 94, the study determined. The IQs of young men who smoked more than a pack a day were lower still, at about 90. An IQ score in a healthy population of such young men, with no mental disorders, falls within the range of 84 to 116.
Source: Science Daily April 2, 2010
Based on the information given in the passage, state the relationship between the number of cigarettes young males smoke and their IQ. *
Explain how chemicals present in cigarette smoke are able to enter the body and reach the brain. *
Base your answers to questions 67 through 70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The rapidly growing biofuel industry converts resources such as corn plants, vegetable oils, and industrial wastes into products that can be used to power cars and trucks, and heat homes. The increased demand for fossil fuel has led to the construction of factories to pro- duce biofuels. A proposal has been made to build a biofuel factory near Syracuse in New York State.
State one advantage, other than decreased reliance on fossil fuels, of the increased production of biofuels in New York State. *
State one disadvantage of the increased use of corn for biofuels. *
State one economic advantage of constructing a biofuel factory. *
State one concern that local residents might have about having a biofuel factory in their area. *
Base your answers to questions 71 and 72 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
Endometriosis is a condition that occurs in some women, causing multiple cells or layers of cells to grow outside of the uterus. In some cases, these growths can actually cover the entire ovary or cause the tube leading from the ovary to the uterus to be blocked. The diagram below represents the female reproductive system. Two structures, A and B, are labeled.
Select structure A or B and indicate your selection on the line below. Describe specifically how the growths that are characteristic of endometriosis at the location you selected could affect the ability of a female to become pregnant. 
Select either surgical procedure or hormone therapy and explain why it can be an effective treatment for endometriosis. 
Base your answers to questions 73 and 74 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
A student observes a red onion cell with a compound light microscope using low, then high power. The two views are represented below.
The best explanation for the changes observed by the student is that, when switching from low to high power, the*
Which diagram represents where the cell should be located in the low-power field of view to be sure the entire cell will be visible after switching to high power?
Hospital patients are often given intravenous fluids (IVs) to maintain proper levels of water and salts in the body. Great care is used in preparing these solutions. If a manufacturer accidentally prepared a batch of IV fluid that contained much more than the usual amount of salt, harm to the patient could result. The most likely effect on a patient if this incorrectly prepared IV fluid was used is that*
Which technique could be used to determine the relative number of bases in fragments taken from a sample of DNA?*
Base your answers to questions 77 and 78 on the DNA base sequence below and on your knowledge of biology.
Identify the mRNA codons that would be produced using this DNA as a template. 
DNA base sequence: AAC GCC GTC CGC TAG
mRNA codons: _____ _____ _____ _____ _____*
If a mutation occurs, leaving 12 bases, what is the maximum number of amino acids that could be coded for by this DNA segment? 
_______________ amino acids*
Base your answers to questions 79 and 80 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a cell and its changes as a result of two laboratory procedures, A and B.
Describe procedure A and explain why it would cause the change shown. *
Explain why procedure B has the opposite effect of procedure A. *
Base your answers to questions 81 through 83 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The circled areas in the diagram represent bird species that are in the same genus, a classification group that includes closely related species. These birds are found on the Hawaiian Islands.
Which processes are directly responsible for the presence of the different species of birds shown in the diagram?*
Which two finches are most closely related?*
If the Akialoa migrated to an ecosystem occupied by a Greater Koa finch, could both species survive? Support your answer. *
Identify one specific molecule that will increase in concentration in the blood as a result of increased activ- ity of the circulatory system during physical exercise. *
Before deciding whether a conclusion was valid or invalid, students looked at the results of the entire class. Explain why the results of the entire class were analyzed, rather than just the results of one individual student. *