Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Regents Test, Full Exam Practice Online: living environment August 2013

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    Base your answers to questions 37 through 39 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The pH of the internal environment of lysosomes (organelles that contain digestive enzymes) is approximately 4.5, while the pH of the surrounding cytoplasm is approximately 7. The average pH of the human stomach during digestion is approximately 2.5, while the average pH of the small intestine during digestion is about 8.

    The graph below shows how pH affects the enzyme activity of four different enzymes, A, B, C, and D.

    organization and patterns in Life, Enzymes, hormones, receptor, and antibodies fig: lenv82013-exam_g15.png

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    Base your answers to questions 41 through 43 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    …Unless actions are taken to slow the decline of domesticated honeybees and augment [increase] their populations with wild bees, many fruits and vegetables may disappear from the food supply, said Claire Kremen, a conservation biologist at Princeton University in New Jersey.…

    The honeybee decline, which is affecting domesticated and wild bee populations around the world, is mostly the result of diseases spread as a result of mites and other parasites as well as the spraying of crops with pesticides, scientists say.…

    Source: “Bee Declines May Spell End of Some Fruits, Vegetables,” National Geographic News, October 5, 2005

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    Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Yellowstone Park Wolf Update

    For the first time in nearly 70 years, the howl of the wolf is being echoed throughout Yellowstone National Park. Canis lupus, the gray wolf, one of the largest and most complex of the canine species, has been successfully reintroduced into the Yellowstone ecosystem.

    In mid-January 1995, 14 wolves from many separate packs were captured in Canada and then transported into Yellowstone Park and placed into three one acre pens.…

    Source: http://www.yellowstone-bearman.com/w-update.html

    After the wolves were given time to establish a new pack structure, the packs were released into the wild. The number of wolf pups was counted each year for four years. The data are shown in the table below.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv82013-exam_g20.png

    Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a bar graph on the grid, following the directions below.

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    Base your answers to questions 50 through 53 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Excess body weight is considered to be a risk factor for diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure. The Body Mass Index (BMI) chart below can be used as a guide to determine if a person’s body weight puts that person at risk for such diseases.

    labs, lab, appendix A, laboratory check list fig: lenv82013-exam_g22.png

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    Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska is over 19 million acres of land. This unique habitat supports many species of land and marine animals, including 36 species of fish and 180 species of birds. Some people want to drill for oil in parts of the refuge. Scientists estimate that the total amount of recoverable oil in the refuge is between 5 and 16 billion barrels.

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    Base your answer to question 56-58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Fish Farming

    Fish farming has risen in popularity to the point that, in 2009, it was estimated that 30% of all fish consumed by humans came from fish farms. Fish farms tend to specialize in one or two species of fish, which are produced in great numbers. Fish farms are conveniently located along shorelines, where the fish are contained in pens. Deep-sea vessels are not necessary to harvest the fish, as they are when fish are caught in the wild. The farms provide a relatively inexpensive way to provide protein for a growing world population.

    As the technique gains in popularity, however, scientists and coastal residents have become concerned that the concentrated mass of fish in fish farms is producing large quantities of wastes. These wastes may be carried by ocean currents to public beaches and recreational boating areas, making them unusable. Others are concerned that uneaten fish food will decay, produce strong odors, and pollute marine environments miles away. If the wastes are not flushed out of the pens, they accumulate on the ocean floor and create a toxic “dead zone” beneath the fish.

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    Base your answers to questions 59 through 62 on the data table and information below and on your knowledge of biology. The data table describes various pH levels.

    labs, lab, appendix A, laboratory check list fig: lenv82013-exam_g23.png

    A scientist is concerned about the effects of acid rain on newly fertilized fish eggs in lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. The scientist would like to investigate the hatching rates of these fish eggs in water at different acidic pH levels. The scientist designed an experiment that could show the effect of an acid pH on the hatching of these fish eggs.

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    Base your answers to questions 63 and 64 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The Protein Shredder

    In every cell, thousands of important processes are occurring around the clock. One of the ways a cell manages to coordinate all of these processes is by sending protein messages. After the protein messages are delivered and read, they need to be destroyed to prepare for the arrival of the next message.

    The task of destroying these proteins falls on cell structures known as proteasomes. Think of a proteasome as a tubelike protein shredder. Protein molecules that have served their purpose are transported to the proteasome, unfolded, fed through the tube, and cut into smaller molecules that can then be used to synthesize new protein molecules. Proteasomes can shred any type of protein.

    Individuals with a neurological disorder known as hereditary ataxia have been found to have an excess of protein in the cells of their brains and spinal cords. The abnormal level somehow leads to the death of cells in portions of the cerebellum. These areas of cell loss can be seen on a brain scan.

    There are several forms of hereditary ataxia but all of them result in poor coordination. The symptoms progress over a period of years. In the beginning, the individuals experience only minor coordination problems. As time passes, the symptoms become worse. The affected individuals will have poor balance when walking. They will be clumsy and have difficulty talking and swallowing.

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    Base your answer to question 65-68 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents three groups of organisms that are part of an ecosystem.

    ecology, energy flow and food web, organization and patterns in Life, cell energetics, cellular respiration and APT, ecology, materials cycle through ecosystems, organization and patterns in Life, cell energetics, cellular respiration and APT fig: lenv82013-exam_g24.png

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    Base your answers to questions 73 through 75 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Students were asked to design a lab that investigated the relationship between exercise and heart rate. Heart rate was determined by recording the pulse rate in beats per minute. The students hypothesized that increased exercise results in an increased heart rate. The class results for the experiment are shown in the graph below.

    labs, lab, making connections fig: lenv82013-exam_g25.png

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    Base your answers to questions 77 and 78 on the Universal Genetic Code Chart below and on your knowledge of biology.

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv82013-exam_g26.png

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    Base your answers to questions 79 and 80 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Two models of a cell were made with dialysis tubing and placed in two beakers of fluid, A and B, each containing starch indicator solution, as represented in the diagram below. Enzyme Z was added to the artificial cell in beaker B. The solution outside each cell was tested for the presence of sugar. Initially, no sugar was present in the solution outside each cell. The results after one hour are represented below.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv82013-exam_g28.png

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    Base your answers to questions 81 and 82 on the chart below and on your knowledge of biology.

    labs, lab, the beaks of finches fig: lenv82013-exam_g29.png

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    Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    As part of a laboratory technique, DNA samples taken from four plants were separated. The results are represented in the diagram below.

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