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The organisms in a pond and the physical factors influencing them best describe*
Which row in the chart below best describes decomposers?
Some processes that occur in a cell are listed below.
• A. utilize energy
• B. detect changes in the environment
• C. rearrange and synthesize chemical compounds
Which processes will all living organisms use to maintain homeostasis?*
Which cell structures are correctly paired with their functions?*
The diagram below represents the region between two nerve cells. Cell A releases a chemical that travels to and binds with structure X on cell B.
Structure X most likely represents*
Over the past few thousand years, humans have helped to bring about changes in many plant and animal species in order to make them more useful. Examples include strong workhorses, hunting dogs, large-eared corn, and beautiful flower varieties. These changes were primarily brought about by humans, using the process of*
Certain antibacterial soaps kill 99% of the bacteria present on hands. Constant use of these soaps could be harmful over time because*
Which factor would cause two specialized tissues that contain identical chromosomes to function differently?*
Some variation must be present in a population in order for natural selection to take place. These variations arise from mutations in the DNA and*
The diagram below represents a segment of a gene on two chromosomes.
The change in the gene sequence is an example of*
In a certain species of insect, some individuals have flattened white disks on their bodies that protrude and interlock, resembling an orchid flower. This adaptation provides the insect with a better opportunity to capture its prey. If environmental conditions remain unchanged, it is most likely that, in future generations, the pro- portion of the population with this adaptation will*
Which structure is correctly paired with its function?*
The fruit fly represented in the diagram below has unusual, curled wings that formed after exposure to radiation.
In order for the fly to pass this trait on to its offspring, a change had to occur in*
In a population of birds, the percentage of individuals having a certain gene changes from 20% to 60% over the span of several hundred years. This situation will most likely affect the rate of*
The finite resources of Earth are often affected by increasing human consumption. These finite resources are*
A student made the drawing shown below of a single-celled organism as he observed it with a compound light microscope under the high-power objective.
Several minutes later, he drew the diagram shown below of the same organism, using the same magnification.
These drawings show that the organism is carrying out the process of*
Which statement best describes why pathogens are harmful?*
In 1996, scientists cloned the first mammal, a sheep. This technique involved the removal of the nucleus from an egg cell. The nucleus from a cell of another adult sheep was then inserted into this egg cell. Once this cell began to develop into an embryo, it was implanted into a third female sheep that later gave birth to a healthy lamb, Dolly. Which statement concerning Dolly is correct?*
Which activity would most likely increase the mutation rate in a culture of bacteria being grown in a laboratory experiment?*
Which two processes are responsible for keeping the percentage of atmospheric oxygen at relatively constant levels?*
Chemicals that help chemical reactions occur at faster rates in living organisms are known as*
The action of insulin on sugar levels in the blood helps to*
An individual recovers from the common cold, which is caused by rhinovirus A. The person then becomes infected with the avian influenza virus, which causes the bird flu. Which statement best describes what will most likely happen to this person?*
The wetland plant purple loosestrife was imported to North America from Europe. Since its introduction, the loosestrife has spread, which has resulted in a dramatic decline in the biological diversity of native wetland plants. A likely reason for the spread of the purple loosestrife is that it can*
Deer ticks are responsible for spreading Lyme disease. This organism, which feeds on the blood of warm-blooded organisms like mice, deer, and humans, is best described as a*
Years ago, an article was written titled “Medicine Chest in the Jungle.” This article most likely described the*
After a building was torn down and the area was cleared, grasses began to grow in the area. Several years later, small bushes replaced the grasses. This pattern of plant growth is known as ecological*
A human activity that could significantly decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the air is*
Ethanol-fueled vehicles have increased in popu- larity as people try to be more environmentally responsible. Ethanol can be made from corn. Some farmers are clearing forests and planting large expanses of corn to meet the rising demand. Which statement describes a likely result of this increased corn production?*
Windmills that generate electricity are being built in coastal areas. The main benefit of these windmills is that they*
The dichotomous key below provides a way to classify some animals into groups according to their physical characteristics.
The key can be used to classify each of the four animals represented below.
Which row in the chart shows the correct classification group for each animal?
Part of a process necessary for reproduction in complex organisms is represented below.
Step C results in the production of*
The diagram below represents an evolutionary tree.
Which statement best describes species E?*
The diagram below represents one type of white blood cell. This type of white blood cell ingests microbes.
A function of another type of white blood cell is to*
The table below indicates a reproductive pattern in some sea turtles when eggs develop in areas with differing temperatures.
The sex of turtle offspring is most probably*
The diagram below represents a food web.
Which statement regarding organisms in this food web is correct?*
Base your answers to questions 37 through 39 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.
The pH of the internal environment of lysosomes (organelles that contain digestive enzymes) is approximately 4.5, while the pH of the surrounding cytoplasm is approximately 7. The average pH of the human stomach during digestion is approximately 2.5, while the average pH of the small intestine during digestion is about 8.
The graph below shows how pH affects the enzyme activity of four different enzymes, A, B, C, and D.
What will most likely happen to the action of an enzyme from the small intestine if it is placed in an environment similar to the environment in which enzyme C functions best?*
Lysosomes break open during the process of digestion, releasing enzymes into the cytoplasm. Which statement may explain why the entire cell may not be digested?*
Which enzyme functions best in a pH environment most similar to that of human stomach enzymes?*
The blood glucose range for a healthy adult is 65–104 mg/dL. Which graph best illustrates normal blood glucose levels in a healthy adult over the course of a day?*
Base your answers to questions 41 through 43 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
…Unless actions are taken to slow the decline of domesticated honeybees and augment [increase] their populations with wild bees, many fruits and vegetables may disappear from the food supply, said Claire Kremen, a conservation biologist at Princeton University in New Jersey.…
The honeybee decline, which is affecting domesticated and wild bee populations around the world, is mostly the result of diseases spread as a result of mites and other parasites as well as the spraying of crops with pesticides, scientists say.…
Source: “Bee Declines May Spell End of Some Fruits, Vegetables,” National Geographic News, October 5, 2005
The decrease in the honeybee population is partly due to*
A decrease in honeybee populations will*
Some honeybees have been able to survive the changes in their environment and reproduce. This is most likely due to*
Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
Yellowstone Park Wolf Update
For the first time in nearly 70 years, the howl of the wolf is being echoed throughout Yellowstone National Park. Canis lupus, the gray wolf, one of the largest and most complex of the canine species, has been successfully reintroduced into the Yellowstone ecosystem.
In mid-January 1995, 14 wolves from many separate packs were captured in Canada and then transported into Yellowstone Park and placed into three one acre pens.…
After the wolves were given time to establish a new pack structure, the packs were released into the wild. The number of wolf pups was counted each year for four years. The data are shown in the table below.
Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a bar graph on the grid, following the directions below.
Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on the axis labeled “Number of Pups.” *
Construct vertical bars to represent the data. Shade in each bar. *
State one positive result of reintroducing wolves into Yellowstone Park. *
The number of wolves that can be supported in this environment for a long period of time is known as*
State one possible reason why the wolf population showed a decline from 1997 to 1998. *
Some levels of organization in a multicellular organism are shown in the sequence below.
A → cells → tissues → B → organ systems → organism
Which terms represented by letters A and B would complete the sequence?*
Base your answers to questions 50 through 53 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
Excess body weight is considered to be a risk factor for diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure. The Body Mass Index (BMI) chart below can be used as a guide to determine if a person’s body weight puts that person at risk for such diseases.
The BMI for a person who is 5 feet 9 inches tall and weighs 170 pounds is between*
Is a person with a BMI of 27 at risk for diseases such as diabetes or high blood pressure? Support your answer. *
State whether an individual who is 5 feet 3 inches tall and weighs 146 pounds needs to gain or lose weight in order to be classified as healthy. *
Calculate the minimum number of pounds that an individual who is 6 feet 3 inches tall and weighs 232 pounds would have to gain or lose to be classified as a healthy individual with a BMI of 24. 
Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska is over 19 million acres of land. This unique habitat supports many species of land and marine animals, including 36 species of fish and 180 species of birds. Some people want to drill for oil in parts of the refuge. Scientists estimate that the total amount of recoverable oil in the refuge is between 5 and 16 billion barrels.
State one benefit of drilling for oil in the refuge in Alaska. *
Describe one environmental problem that could be caused by drilling for oil in the refuge in Alaska. *
Base your answer to question 56-58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Fish farming has risen in popularity to the point that, in 2009, it was estimated that 30% of all fish consumed by humans came from fish farms. Fish farms tend to specialize in one or two species of fish, which are produced in great numbers. Fish farms are conveniently located along shorelines, where the fish are contained in pens. Deep-sea vessels are not necessary to harvest the fish, as they are when fish are caught in the wild. The farms provide a relatively inexpensive way to provide protein for a growing world population.
As the technique gains in popularity, however, scientists and coastal residents have become concerned that the concentrated mass of fish in fish farms is producing large quantities of wastes. These wastes may be carried by ocean currents to public beaches and recreational boating areas, making them unusable. Others are concerned that uneaten fish food will decay, produce strong odors, and pollute marine environments miles away. If the wastes are not flushed out of the pens, they accumulate on the ocean floor and create a toxic “dead zone” beneath the fish.
Describe some aspects of fish farming that are examples of humans interacting with the environment. In your answer, be sure to:
• state one specific benefit humans gain from fish farming 
• state how biodiversity may be reduced by fish farming and support your answer 
• describe the impact, other than a reduction in biodiversity, fish farming may have on the natural ecosystems of coastal water if no changes are made *
Base your answers to questions 59 through 62 on the data table and information below and on your knowledge of biology. The data table describes various pH levels.
A scientist is concerned about the effects of acid rain on newly fertilized fish eggs in lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. The scientist would like to investigate the hatching rates of these fish eggs in water at different acidic pH levels. The scientist designed an experiment that could show the effect of an acid pH on the hatching of these fish eggs.
State how the control group would be treated differently from the experimental groups. *
State two factors that must be kept the same in both the experimental groups and the control group. *
Describe the type of data to be collected. *
State one example of experimental results that would show that the increasing acidity of lake water has a negative effect on the hatching rate of fish eggs. *
Base your answers to questions 63 and 64 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
The Protein Shredder
In every cell, thousands of important processes are occurring around the clock. One of the ways a cell manages to coordinate all of these processes is by sending protein messages. After the protein messages are delivered and read, they need to be destroyed to prepare for the arrival of the next message.
The task of destroying these proteins falls on cell structures known as proteasomes. Think of a proteasome as a tubelike protein shredder. Protein molecules that have served their purpose are transported to the proteasome, unfolded, fed through the tube, and cut into smaller molecules that can then be used to synthesize new protein molecules. Proteasomes can shred any type of protein.
Individuals with a neurological disorder known as hereditary ataxia have been found to have an excess of protein in the cells of their brains and spinal cords. The abnormal level somehow leads to the death of cells in portions of the cerebellum. These areas of cell loss can be seen on a brain scan.
There are several forms of hereditary ataxia but all of them result in poor coordination. The symptoms progress over a period of years. In the beginning, the individuals experience only minor coordination problems. As time passes, the symptoms become worse. The affected individuals will have poor balance when walking. They will be clumsy and have difficulty talking and swallowing.
Based on the symptoms shown by individuals with hereditary ataxia, state two functions regulated by the cerebellum and spinal cord. 
Functions:_________________________________ and _______________________________________*
Explain why researchers could think that proteasomes might not be working correctly in nerve cells of individuals with hereditary ataxia. *
Base your answer to question 65-68 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents three groups of organisms that are part of an ecosystem.
Explain the role of these groups of organisms in the cycling of materials and the transfer of energy in an ecosystem. In your answer, be sure to:
• explain why an ecosystem requires a constant input of energy 
• explain how organisms in group B obtain energy 
• explain the role of organisms in group C in the ecosystem 
• identify the process used by all three groups of organisms to make energy available to their cells to carry out life functions *
Discuss the process used by scientists to insert a gene from one organism into the DNA of another. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify the scientific technique used to insert a gene from one organism into another 
• describe the function of a gene 
• identify the type of molecule used to cut the gene from the DNA of an organism 
• state one benefit of this technique to humans *
Base your answers to questions 73 through 75 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.
Students were asked to design a lab that investigated the relationship between exercise and heart rate. Heart rate was determined by recording the pulse rate in beats per minute. The students hypothesized that increased exercise results in an increased heart rate. The class results for the experiment are shown in the graph below.
Which statement is best supported by the graph?*
Students in a different science class carried out the same experiment. The data they obtained did not support the hypothesis that increased exercise results in increased heart rate. The most scientifically sound way to deal with this situation is to*
The change in heart rate that occurs between 1 and 5 minutes of exercise is an adaptation that*
A student hypothesized that watching sports on television would cause viewers’ pulse rates to increase. She designed an experiment to determine the effect of watching sports on pulse rate. A group of 200 volunteers took their pulse rates and then watched their favorite sports on television. After the games, they immediately took their pulse rates again. The data collected showed that the pulse rates of some people increased, but the pulse rates of an equal number of people did not change. Although the hypothesis was not supported by the data, the hypothesis is still valuable because it*
Base your answers to questions 77 and 78 on the Universal Genetic Code Chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
The table below shows the DNA, mRNA, and amino acid sequences from two similar plant species. Using the information given, fill in the missing mRNA base sequences for species A on the table below. *
Using the Universal Genetic Code Chart, fill in the missing amino acids for species B on the table below. 
Base your answers to questions 79 and 80 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
Two models of a cell were made with dialysis tubing and placed in two beakers of fluid, A and B, each containing starch indicator solution, as represented in the diagram below. Enzyme Z was added to the artificial cell in beaker B. The solution outside each cell was tested for the presence of sugar. Initially, no sugar was present in the solution outside each cell. The results after one hour are represented below.
State one reason for the color change in beaker A after one hour. *
How would the results have been different in beaker B if an enzyme that digests protein was used instead of enzyme Z? *
Base your answers to questions 81 and 82 on the chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
Which finches would be most like the ancestral finch?*
Present-day cactus finches are a type of*
Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
As part of a laboratory technique, DNA samples taken from four plants were separated. The results are represented in the diagram below.
Circle the band in the diagram below in the results for plant X that would contain the smallest DNA fragments. Support your answer. 
Which plant is most closely related to plant X? Support your answer using information from the diagram. 
Plant number: ____________*
Identify the technique used to obtain the results represented in the diagram.