Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Regents Test, Full Exam Practice Online: living environment January 2014

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    Base your answers to questions 31 through 33 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    An experiment was carried out to answer the question “Does the pH of water affect the growth of radish plants?” Two groups of ten radish plants were set up. One group was watered with water having a pH of 3.0, and the other group was watered with water having a pH of 7.0. Both groups of plants received the same amount and intensity of light, the same amount of water, and they were grown in the same type of soil. The heights of the radish plants were measured every 2 days for a period of 2 weeks.

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    Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Female mosquitoes spread diseases when they bite humans to obtain blood. It is only the females that do the biting. Research is being conducted to alter the DNA of male mosquitoes. These altered males could then mate with normal female mosquitoes. All of the resulting female offspring would have wing defects that prevent them from flying.

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    Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the data table below, which shows the estimated population of wolves in Minnesota from 1995 through 2002.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv12014-examw_g14.png

    Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid, following the directions below.

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    Base your answers to questions 49 through 51 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Tracking the Big Horn

    Bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, are a majestic symbol of the mountainous West. They browse at high altitudes and in steep, rocky areas from Texas to British Columbia. Rams’ horns curl around their eyes and grow up to 45 inches long. Males butt horns to establish dominance during the fall rut [mating season]. Ewes [females] sport shorter, spiked horns similar to a mountain goat’s. From their first days of life, bighorns are surefooted enough to scale cliffs too steep for most predators to follow.…

    Two centuries ago, an estimated 1.5 million to 2 million bighorn sheep lived in North America; today, a mere 28,000 remain. Diseases caught from domestic sheep, competition from livestock for forage, and trophy hunting for their horns caused populations to plummet [drop rapidly]. Bighorns graze in mountain meadows, habitat that is being lost to expanding forests, which are growing beyond their historic boundaries in part because the wildfires that are used to hold them in check have been suppressed. Glacier National Park, home to 400 to 600 bighorn sheep, lists the animals as a “species of concern,” that is, at risk of becoming endangered.…

    Source: Becky Lomax, Smithsonian Magazine, March, 2008

    “Tracking the Big Horn”

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    Base your answer to question 52 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    For many years, scientists hypothesized the existence of a single tomato gene that increases the sweetness and production of tomatoes. After years of research, a team of scientists identified the gene and observed greater sweetness and tomato production in plants that contain this gene.

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    Base your answer to question 53 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), is an industrial chemical commonly added to disposable, plastic water bottles to make them sturdier. BPA has been shown to inhibit the development of tadpoles into frogs. Some tadpoles exposed to high levels of BPA develop into frogs without legs. Others, when exposed to the chemical as tadpoles, fail to reabsorb their tails and thus grow into frogs with significantly long tails.

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    Base your answer to question 56-60 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A student has a sandwich for lunch. The bread contains starch molecules and various other molecules. After chewing and swallowing some of the sandwich, the starch moves along the digestive system and is digested. The sequence below represents what takes place next.

    digested starch → bloodstream → cell → cell structure → ATP

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    Base your answers to questions 61 through 63 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A Study of Antibacterial Cleansers

    An experiment was designed to test the effectiveness of three antibacterial hand-cleansing solutions against bacteria present on hands. Swabs were used to take one sample each from the unwashed hands of ten test subjects. Each swab was then rubbed across the surface of bacterial growth medium in a separate petri dish. The dishes were placed in an incubator to allow bacterial colonies to develop.

    Ten other test subjects treated their hands with an antibacterial hand-cleansing solution, then had their hands swabbed, and ten more petri dishes were set up and incubated in the same way as the first set of dishes.

    The process was repeated again with ten more test subjects for a second hand cleanser, and again for a third group with a third hand cleanser.

    The results from the incubated petri dishes were averaged. The averages are shown in the data table below.

    labs, lab, appendix A, laboratory check list fig: lenv12014-examw_g16.png

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    Base your answer to question 64-66 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The Critical Role of the Placenta

    The proper functioning of the placenta is critical to the growth and development of a healthy fetus. For example, the placenta appears to act as a nutrient sensor. It regulates the amounts and types of nutrients that are transported from the mother to the fetus.

    Improper functioning of the placenta can alter the structure and function of specific cells and organ systems in the developing fetus, putting it at risk for health problems as an adult. For example, in some pregnancies, the placenta develops a resistance to blood flow. This resistance appears to force the heart of the fetus to work harder. This could result in an increased chance of the individual developing heart disease as an adult. A group of hormones known as glucocorticoids affects the development of all the tissues and organ systems. One of the things this group of hormones does is to alter cell function by changing the structure of cell membrane receptors.

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    Base your answer to question 68-70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

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    Base your answers to questions 71 and 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    New York State relies on natural gas for 24% of its energy supply. It is estimated that large deposits of natural gas are located in New York State. It is possible to extract the gas via high-volume hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking). Hydrofracking involves freeing the natural gas by using a large amount of water treated with chemicals, which produces large quantities of waste products. Some people are in favor of hydrofracking, while others are against it. One side is concerned about the negative effect it will have on the environment. The other side points out the potential benefits it might provide.

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    Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    One of the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which devastated New Orleans in 2005, was the death of almost all of the plants in flooded areas. Initially, toxic chemicals and bacteria were suspected as a possible cause. Scientists later determined that the salt concentration in the floodwater caused the plants to die.

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    Base your answers to questions 78 and 79 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    An investigation was carried out on four different plant species to determine which of three species was most closely related to an unknown plant species. The results of the investigation are shown in the data table below.

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv12014-examw_g19.png

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    Base your answer to question 80 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    labs, lab, the beaks of finches fig: lenv12014-examw_g20.png

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    Base your answers to questions 81 through 83 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The Galapagos Islands are home to many different species of finches. Three finch species, their relative beak sizes, and their food preferences are represented below. All three species live on the same island.

    labs, lab, the beaks of finches fig: lenv12014-examw_g21.png

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