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The concentration of potassium is higher in red blood cells than in the surrounding blood plasma. This higher concentration is maintained by the process of*
Human genetic material is represented in the diagram below.
The region labeled A is made up of a section of*
Brothers and sisters often have similar facial characteristics, such as nose shape or eye color, because they*
Compared to a normal body cell, a normal egg cell contains*
The variations that exist in a population of wild giraffes are usually a result of events that occur during*
Evidence that best supports the theory of biological evolution was obtained from the*
The human immune system fights infection by releasing*
The function of a specific enzyme is most directly influenced by its*
A vaccine for the viral disease known as chicken pox would contain*
Which process will result in a gain of energy in an ecosystem?*
A photograph of a polar bear in its environment is shown below.
One possible reason why polar bears might not be able to survive if the environment they live in changes is because*
An ecological process is represented below.
Which statement describes an event in this process?*
An infection in the body might result in a sudden*
Which disorder could develop in the human body when the immune system attacks a usually harmless environmental substance?*
In the human body, carbon monoxide reduces the amount of oxygen that can be transported to cells. Breathing in too much carbon monoxide will most likely result in the production of*
Which human activity would interfere most directly with the production of oxygen in the environment?*
Tissues of oleander plants contain chemicals that are poisonous to many mammals. The production of these poisonous chemicals most likely benefits oleanders by preventing leaf loss caused by*
Sugar maples and white pines are two different tree species that often grow side by side in the Adirondack Mountains. Which statement concerning these trees is correct?*
People living in and around the Amazon rain forest have used parts of the gaviola tree to prepare medicines. Research is being conducted to determine if this tree can provide cures for many types of cancer. Continued destruction of rain forests might*
A fundamental concept of ecology is that living organisms*
Many families now use compost to make the soil in their gardens more fertile. They collect vegetable scraps and yard trimmings, place them in a compost pile or special container, and let them decompose. The organisms primarily responsible for decomposing the vegetable scraps and yard trimmings are*
In 2003, the city of Rochester, New York, began killing weeds with steam. A machine heats water to 280°F then sprays it on the weeds with great pressure. The extreme heat destroys the cellular structure of the plants. What is a possible disadvantage of this method of weed control?*
A food chain is represented below.
grass → rabbit → hawk
Structures within the rabbit are formed using*
The graduating class of a high school would like to give the school a gift that would have a positive impact on the environment. Which plan would be the best choice?*
Which graph best illustrates the change in the human population over the past 2000 years?*
Which processes lead to the greatest variety of genetic combinations?*
One possible explanation for the fact that some simple, one-celled organisms did not evolve into complex, multicellular organisms is that*
In New York State, cars are inspected to be sure they are not releasing excessive amounts of several gases into the atmosphere. This is done in an effort to*
Damage to the ozone shield over the United States is likely to cause*
Researchers recently discovered that when hammerhead sharks were moved to shallower water, resulting in exposure to increased light intensity, their backs turned a deep brownish black. Which statement best supports this observation?*
Base your answers to questions 31 through 33 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
An experiment was carried out to answer the question “Does the pH of water affect the growth of radish plants?” Two groups of ten radish plants were set up. One group was watered with water having a pH of 3.0, and the other group was watered with water having a pH of 7.0. Both groups of plants received the same amount and intensity of light, the same amount of water, and they were grown in the same type of soil. The heights of the radish plants were measured every 2 days for a period of 2 weeks.
Which sentence is a possible hypothesis that was tested in this experiment?*
What was the dependent variable in this experiment?*
Which activity might help to increase the validity of this experiment?*
Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Female mosquitoes spread diseases when they bite humans to obtain blood. It is only the females that do the biting. Research is being conducted to alter the DNA of male mosquitoes. These altered males could then mate with normal female mosquitoes. All of the resulting female offspring would have wing defects that prevent them from flying.
One assumption from this research is that the*
The method used to alter the male mosquitoes is an example of an application of*
Scientists have successfully cloned animals, including large mammals such as sheep. Which statement provides the most likely reason that a human has not yet been cloned?*
Some evolutionary pathways are represented in the diagram below.
An inference that can be made from information in the diagram is that*
The diagram below represents a technique used in some molecular biology laboratories.
Which phrase best describes a possible result of this process?*
The diagram below represents a portion of a molecule found in cells of the human body.
Sequences represented by the letters in this molecule enable human cells to*
Potatoes were the main crop in Ireland in the 1800s. Almost the entire population of Ireland was dependent on a single variety of potato, the “lumper.” These potatoes were reproduced by a method of asexual reproduction known as vegetative propagation. In the middle of the 1800s, a disease caused by a fungus killed almost the entire lumper crop within two years. As a result, millions of people in Ireland died of starvation. The most likely reason the potato disease was able to destroy the potato crop in such a short time is that the*
The chart below shows examples from two groups of organisms, multicellular and one-celled.
The tissues and organs in group A perform functions that are*
The graph below shows changes in the concentrations of glucose and insulin in the blood of a human over a period of time.
Which statement correctly explains these changes?*
The diagram below represents an incomplete sequence of levels of organization.
organelles → tissues → organs → organ systems → organism
This sequence can be completed correctly by inserting*
Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the data table below, which shows the estimated population of wolves in Minnesota from 1995 through 2002.
Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid, following the directions below.
Label the y-axis on the line provided. *
Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis. *
Plot the data on the grid. Surround each point with a small circle and connect the points. 
The most likely explanation for the size of the wolf population for the 2000–2002 period is that the population*
Wolves prey on animals such as deer. Identify one adaptation of deer that would help them to survive in an area populated by wolves. *
Base your answers to questions 49 through 51 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
Tracking the Big Horn
Bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, are a majestic symbol of the mountainous West. They browse at high altitudes and in steep, rocky areas from Texas to British Columbia. Rams’ horns curl around their eyes and grow up to 45 inches long. Males butt horns to establish dominance during the fall rut [mating season]. Ewes [females] sport shorter, spiked horns similar to a mountain goat’s. From their first days of life, bighorns are surefooted enough to scale cliffs too steep for most predators to follow.…
Two centuries ago, an estimated 1.5 million to 2 million bighorn sheep lived in North America; today, a mere 28,000 remain. Diseases caught from domestic sheep, competition from livestock for forage, and trophy hunting for their horns caused populations to plummet [drop rapidly]. Bighorns graze in mountain meadows, habitat that is being lost to expanding forests, which are growing beyond their historic boundaries in part because the wildfires that are used to hold them in check have been suppressed. Glacier National Park, home to 400 to 600 bighorn sheep, lists the animals as a “species of concern,” that is, at risk of becoming endangered.…
Source: Becky Lomax, Smithsonian Magazine, March, 2008
“Tracking the Big Horn”
The feeding activity of the bighorn sheep is best described as*
Which statement best accounts for the decline in bighorn sheep populations?*
State one way that young bighorn sheep are able to avoid predators. *
Base your answer to question 52 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
For many years, scientists hypothesized the existence of a single tomato gene that increases the sweetness and production of tomatoes. After years of research, a team of scientists identified the gene and observed greater sweetness and tomato production in plants that contain this gene.
Identify a process that could be used to insert this gene into other plant species to increase fruit production. *
Base your answer to question 53 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Bisphenol-A (BPA), is an industrial chemical commonly added to disposable, plastic water bottles to make them sturdier. BPA has been shown to inhibit the development of tadpoles into frogs. Some tadpoles exposed to high levels of BPA develop into frogs without legs. Others, when exposed to the chemical as tadpoles, fail to reabsorb their tails and thus grow into frogs with significantly long tails.
State one specific way humans can help decrease the exposure of animals to bisphenol-A. *
Organ systems of the human body interact to maintain a balanced internal environment. As blood flows through certain organs of the body, the composition of the blood changes because of interactions with those organs. State one change in the composition of the blood as it flows through the respiratory system. *
State one possible negative impact of importing a natural predator to control a pest. *
Base your answer to question 56-60 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
A student has a sandwich for lunch. The bread contains starch molecules and various other molecules. After chewing and swallowing some of the sandwich, the starch moves along the digestive system and is digested. The sequence below represents what takes place next.
digested starch → bloodstream → cell → cell structure → ATP
Explain what occurs, beginning with the digestion of starch and ending with ATP production. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify the molecules that are used to digest the starch 
• identify the molecules produced when starch is digested 
• explain why starch must be digested before its building block molecules can enter the bloodstream 
• identify the structure in the cell that will produce ATP from the starch building blocks 
• state why ATP is important to cells *
Base your answers to questions 61 through 63 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
A Study of Antibacterial Cleansers
An experiment was designed to test the effectiveness of three antibacterial hand-cleansing solutions against bacteria present on hands. Swabs were used to take one sample each from the unwashed hands of ten test subjects. Each swab was then rubbed across the surface of bacterial growth medium in a separate petri dish. The dishes were placed in an incubator to allow bacterial colonies to develop.
Ten other test subjects treated their hands with an antibacterial hand-cleansing solution, then had their hands swabbed, and ten more petri dishes were set up and incubated in the same way as the first set of dishes.
The process was repeated again with ten more test subjects for a second hand cleanser, and again for a third group with a third hand cleanser.
The results from the incubated petri dishes were averaged. The averages are shown in the data table below.
What was the purpose of testing unwashed hands? *
Explain why the researchers used data from ten trials and averaged them, rather than data from a single trial. *
Based on the data provided, what could the researchers conclude regarding the effectiveness of the antibacterial hand-cleansing solutions tested? *
Base your answer to question 64-66 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The Critical Role of the Placenta
The proper functioning of the placenta is critical to the growth and development of a healthy fetus. For example, the placenta appears to act as a nutrient sensor. It regulates the amounts and types of nutrients that are transported from the mother to the fetus.
Improper functioning of the placenta can alter the structure and function of specific cells and organ systems in the developing fetus, putting it at risk for health problems as an adult. For example, in some pregnancies, the placenta develops a resistance to blood flow. This resistance appears to force the heart of the fetus to work harder. This could result in an increased chance of the individual developing heart disease as an adult. A group of hormones known as glucocorticoids affects the development of all the tissues and organ systems. One of the things this group of hormones does is to alter cell function by changing the structure of cell membrane receptors.
Discuss the importance of the placenta in the development of a healthy fetus. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify two factors that could influence the nutrients that can pass from the mother to the fetus 
• identify the group of hormones that alter cell membrane receptors and explain how this alteration can affect cell function 
• state the role of the uterus in the development of the fetus and the placenta *
A farmer planted two corn varieties, one of which was very tasty but had small ears, and the other one had large ears but did not taste nearly as good. The pollen from one variety was used to fertilize the other variety of corn. State one biological advantage this method of reproduction has over cloning. *
Base your answer to question 68-70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Feedback mechanisms have evolved that maintain homeostasis. Describe how homeostasis is maintained through feedback. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify one feedback mechanism in the human body 
• identify, other than death, one specific result if homeostasis fails in the human body 
• describe how a plant regulates water loss through a feedback mechanism that involves guard cells *
Base your answers to questions 71 and 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
New York State relies on natural gas for 24% of its energy supply. It is estimated that large deposits of natural gas are located in New York State. It is possible to extract the gas via high-volume hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking). Hydrofracking involves freeing the natural gas by using a large amount of water treated with chemicals, which produces large quantities of waste products. Some people are in favor of hydrofracking, while others are against it. One side is concerned about the negative effect it will have on the environment. The other side points out the potential benefits it might provide.
Describe a trade-off that must be considered in the decision whether to move forward with hydrofracking. *
Identify one renewable alternative to natural gas as an energy source that New York State could use and describe the advantage of using this source, other than it is renewable. *
A class is recording pulse rates of the students in a data table like the one shown below.
One student checks his pulse and counts 23 beats over a time interval of 20 seconds. In which row in the data table should the pulse rate of this student be recorded?*
The diagram below represents a compound light microscope. Several parts have been labeled.
In order to make an image brighter, which labeled part of the microscope would most likely be adjusted?*
Cell membranes are said to be selectively permeable. Which statement best explains what selectively permeable means?*
Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
One of the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which devastated New Orleans in 2005, was the death of almost all of the plants in flooded areas. Initially, toxic chemicals and bacteria were suspected as a possible cause. Scientists later determined that the salt concentration in the floodwater caused the plants to die.
The death of the plants was most likely due to*
Identify the process responsible for the effect that the salt water had on the plants. *
Base your answers to questions 78 and 79 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
An investigation was carried out on four different plant species to determine which of three species was most closely related to an unknown plant species. The results of the investigation are shown in the data table below.
Which plant species appears to be most closely related to the unknown species? Support your answer. 
Identify two pieces of evidence, other than those shown in the chart, that can be used to determine if two plant species are related. *
Base your answer to question 80 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
There are a number of islands in the Galapagos that these finches could possibly inhabit. Explain why each island would not be expected to have all of the species shown. *
Base your answers to questions 81 through 83 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
The Galapagos Islands are home to many different species of finches. Three finch species, their relative beak sizes, and their food preferences are represented below. All three species live on the same island.
Which statement is correct concerning the nutritional preferences of these finches?*
Which process allows for the evolution of finches over time?*
Complete the food web below by placing the names of the finches in the correct locations. 
Identify one trait, other than a beak characteristic, that could affect the survival of a finch. Support your answer. *
Identify one specific substance necessary for muscle activity that is delivered to muscles more effectively as a result of increased heart rate. *