Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Regents Test, Full Exam Practice Online: living environment June 2014

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    Base your answers to questions 31 and 32 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a food web.

    ecology, energy flow and food web fig: lenv62014-examw_g5.png

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    Base your answer to question 35 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph shows the level of gene expression of five different genes in normal and cancerous cells.

    genetics and biotechnology, gene expression and cell differentiation fig: lenv62014-examw_g8.png

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    Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Fertilized eggs containing embryos from the same species of alligator were incubated at different temperatures. The sex of the hatched offspring is shown in the table below.

    scientific inquiry, access result and draw conclusion fig: lenv62014-examw_g9.png

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    Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph shows the growth of a population of rabbits in a specific ecosystem.

    ecology, organization of ecosystems  fig: lenv62014-examw_g10.png

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    Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents the effect of two chemical substances, A and B, in maintaining the level of glucose in the blood in humans.

    homeostasis and immunity, maintainance of homeostasis, stimuli and feedback fig: lenv62014-examw_g11.png

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    Base your answers to questions 45 through 47 on the data table below and on your knowledge of biology. The data table shows the concentration of estrogen in picograms per milliliter (pg/mL) in the blood of a woman over the course of 28 days.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv62014-examw_g13.png

    Directions: Using the information given in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid following the directions below.

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    Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the word equations below and on your knowledge of biology. The equations represent two biochemical processes that occur in living organisms. The letter X represents a molecule produced from process 1.

    Process 1: oxygen + glucose → carbon dioxide + water + X

    Process 2: carbon dioxide + water → oxygen + glucose

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    Base your answers to questions 50 through 53 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph shows some events associated with the reproductive cycle of human females.

    reproduction and development, factors influencing human reproduction and development fig: lenv62014-examw_g15.png

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    Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Different plant species require different amounts of direct sunlight in order to flower. A student designed an experiment to determine the length of exposure to direct sunlight necessary for a specific plant species to produce flowers. The student collected the data below.

    0 hours, 0% with flowers; 9 hours, 0% with flowers

    1 hour, 0% with flowers; 5 hours, 90% with flowers

    3 hours, 80% with flowers; 7 hours, 10% with flowers

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    Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Decline in the Amphibians

    Declines in amphibian species, such as frogs, toads and salamanders, might affect the ways in which ecosystems function. Amphibians prey on many types of small organisms that survive by consuming leaf litter (leaf material on the ground of ecosystems). These small organisms include animals such as earthworms, centipedes, millipedes, pill bugs, and many species of insects. In turn, amphibians are preyed on by fish, herons, chipmunks, turkeys, foxes, coyotes, and other animals.

    Human activities often cause a reduction in the size of amphibian populations. As amphibian populations are reduced, the organisms that are preyed on by amphibians increase in number. As the populations of small forest organisms increase, the amount of leaf litter decreases. The decrease in the amount of leaf litter on the forest floor may have negative effects on the forest ecosystem.

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    Base your answers to questions 58 and 59 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Female Shark Reproduced Without Male DNA, Scientists Say

    A hammerhead shark that gave birth in a Nebraska aquarium reproduced without mating, a genetic analysis shows.

    This form of asexual reproduction, called parthenogenesis, has been found in other vertebrate species, including some snakes and lizards. But this is the first time it has been documented in a shark.…

    Instead, the female shark’s own genetic material combined during this process of cell division that produces an egg. A cell called the secondary oocyte, which contains half the female chromosomes and normally becomes the egg, fused with another cell called the secondary polar body, which contains the identical [amount of] genetic material….

    Robert E. Hueter, director of the Center for Shark Research at the Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota, Fla., said the finding helped fill a gap in understanding parthenogenesis, which has been found to occur in most vertebrate lines except mammals, and until now, cartilaginous fishes like sharks….

    “It’s a last-resort tactic that animals use when they absolutely can’t find another mate,” Dr. Hueter said.

    Source: Henry Fountain, The New York Times, May 23, 2007

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    Base your answers to questions 60 through 62 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Ticks, such as deer ticks and dog ticks, feed on the blood of humans and other animals. Part of the feeding process involves the tick injecting its saliva to help make blood flow. In the process, they sometimes spread disease organisms to their host. Sometimes ticks get on clothing, and can remain there for a few days before actually biting their host.

    A scientist found that ticks might be able to survive even when exposed to hot water and detergent in a washing machine.

    Students designed the experiment below to test how well ticks survive a hot-water washing machine cycle with detergent. Note that some details of the design are incorrect.

    labs, lab, appendix A, laboratory check list, scientific inquiry, hypothesis and experiment design fig: lenv62014-examw_g17.png

    labs, lab, appendix A, laboratory check list, scientific inquiry, hypothesis and experiment design fig: lenv62014-examw_g18.png

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    Base your answers to questions 63 through 66 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The Return of the Large Blue Butterfly

    In 1979, the Large Blue Butterfly was declared extinct in the United Kingdom, despite the efforts to protect the grasslands where it lived.

    Research into the butterfly life cycle discovered the following facts. The butterflies lay their eggs on flowering thyme plants, and the caterpillars fall to the ground after they hatch. The young butterfly caterpillars have a “honey gland” on their posterior end, which, when stimulated by red ants, makes the caterpillars smell and wiggle like red ants. The red ants treat the butterfly caterpillars as ant grubs and carry them to their underground homes. The red ants keep looking after them and guard them, even though the caterpillars eat ant grubs for 10 months before flying away as adult butterflies in the spring.

    The red ants live in fields of short grass. The grass is short enough to let the sun warm the soil. This is where the ants find and eat insects and plants. Rabbits had kept the grass short until the mid-1950s, when the rabbit populations were suddenly devastated by a viral disease. Additionally, farmers allowed pastures to get overgrown by not letting cattle graze on the grass. The red ants vanished when the taller grass increased the shade and cooled the soil.

    A program was introduced to protect the pastures where the red ants nested. Their numbers came back. Populations of Large Blue Butterflies from Sweden were brought into the area, and now the Large Blue Butterfly is thriving again.

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    Base your answer to question 67-69 on the information and photographs below and on your knowledge of biology.

    In addition to their use for hearing, ears contain many blood vessels that allow heat to escape into the air. Animals that live in warm climates tend to have ears with large areas exposed to the environment. Animals in cold climates have a more compact ear that keeps exposure to the environment to a minimum. The photographs below show a jackrabbit from desert regions of the southwestern United States and a fennec fox from northern Africa with large ears, and a snowshoe hare and an arctic fox with small ears.

    evolution, new species formation and evolution, evolution, naturel selection, evolution, naturel selection fig: lenv62014-examw_g19.png

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    Base your answers to questions 70 and 71 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Plasmodium, the world’s most lethal parasite, causes malaria. The parasite enters the bloodstream through a mosquito bite, hiding in the human liver before invading red blood cells. Ultimately, millions of infected blood cells explode at once, causing fever and death in 3 million people a year worldwide.

    Source: Zimmer, February 12, 2001, “Animal Parasites – As Gross As It Gets,”

    “Science World,” pg 11.

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    Base your answers to questions 73 and 74 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents evolutionary relationships among some primates.

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv62014-examw_g20.png

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    Base your answers to questions 77 and 78 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Three students took their pulse rates in beats per minute (bpm) while sitting in class. The results are shown in the data table below.

    labs, lab, making connections fig: lenv62014-examw_g22.png

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    Base your answers to questions 79 and 80 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    In an experiment, three plants of the same species were grown in each of six identical pots. The heights of the plants were measured when growth began. Each of the pots was watered every day with salt solutions of different concentrations. The data for the experiment are shown in the table below.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv62014-examw_g23.png

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