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A function of cell membranes in humans is the*
Forests, mountains, rivers, and marshes are examples of the wide variety of ecosystems in New York State. The diversity of these ecosys- tems is most likely the result of*
The diagram below represents two organisms.
Which statement concerning organism A and organism B is correct?*
Which statement best describes the organelles in a cell?*
A substance directly involved in cellular commun- ication within the human body is*
The list below includes three organ systems that are directly used when a human runs.
circulatory system muscular system skeletal system
Which system should also be included in the list?*
In a pine forest, there are different species of birds known as warblers that are able to coexist on the same pine trees. The Cape May warblers feed on insects located on the tips of the highest pine branches. The yellow-rumped warblers feed on insects on lower branches of the same trees. The different feeding locations for these two species of warblers indicate that they have different*
The diagram below represents the locations of two mutations in a strand of a DNA molecule.
If this DNA is located in the nucleus of a skin cell, the cell will*
A human skin cell contains 46 chromosomes. A frog sperm cell contains 12 chromosomes. Which pair of numbers shows the chromosome number of a normal gamete from each of these species?*
According to the theory of biological evolution, most present-day species of organisms*
Corn seeds with identical genetic information were planted on two adjacent farms. The corn plants on one farm were well fertilized and grew large, while the plants on the other farm were not given fertilizer and did not grow as large. The best explanation for these observations is that*
The male red-winged blackbird defends its territory and uses loud vocalizations to attract a mate. Such behavior directly benefits these birds because it results in*
Extinction occurs when the environment changes and*
All the information necessary for growth, development, and eventual reproduction of sexually reproducing organisms is present in*
Which activity can occur without the use of energy?*
An alternative to the use of insecticides to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). SIT involves the sterilization of male insects by radiation, which prevents the formation of functional male gametes. When these male insects mate with female insects of the same species, the result would be that*
The diagrams below represent a human organ system.
The major function of the system is to*
Sheep were the first species of mammals to be cloned. Which statement about cloned sheep is correct?*
In a sexually reproducing species, evolution could occur as a result of*
An increase in the level of hormone A causes an increase in the level of hormone B. The increase in the level of hormone B then causes a decrease in the level of hormone A. This process is an example of*
Human population growth has led to a reduction in the populations of predators throughout natural ecosystems across the United States. Scientists consider the loss of these predators to have a*
Which environmental change would cause the greatest reduction in the biodiversity of a large ecosystem?*
The diagram below represents a variety of fossil types, which can be found in many rocks.
These fossils can be best used to provide information that could be used in a study of*
The bottom of Onondaga Lake in upstate New York contains large amounts of pollutants. One proposal to clean the lake bottom requires that the pollutants be removed and stored nearby. People who live near the proposed storage sites are opposed to this plan. The officials who must decide on the proposal will examine both the benefits and risks of the plan. The decision made by the officials will most likely involve*
The increased use of wind turbines and solar collectors to generate electric power will*
Antibiotics are substances used to help fight an infection of Streptococcus, a bacterium that causes strep throat. Overuse of these antibiotics can*
An allergic reaction to certain types of natural, unprocessed foods, such as peanuts, is caused by*
A variety of pear tree, known as Bradford, was originally introduced into the eastern United States in the 1960s. Today, this tree is crowding out other plants in these states. This situation best illustrates*
The diagram below represents a process that occurs in nature.
If the oak and hickory trees were burned in a forest fire, leaving bare soil, which group of plants would most likely be the first to grow back?*
A growing mass of plastic garbage is collecting in an area of the Pacific Ocean. This is caused by plastic garbage that is discarded by people, and it ends up in rivers that carry it to the ocean. Over time, ocean currents cause it to accumulate in this area of the Pacific. Currently, the mass is estimated to cover an area of ocean twice the size of Texas. As these plastics slowly break down, chemicals enter the water, and can enter ocean organisms that we might eventually use for food. This sequence of events illustrates that*
Which organic compounds would be the best to analyze in order to determine if two species are closely related?*
The diagram below represents some structures observed in a drop of human blood.
Which statement correctly describes all of these structures in human blood?*
Base your answer to question 33 on the energy pyramid below and on your knowledge of biology.
Letter A in the pyramid represents*
The graph below shows changes in the level of glucose in the blood of a person over a period of time.
The graph represents the*
Base your answer to question 35 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
The Thousand Islands region in upstate New York has many isolated islands. On one island, a fire burned most of the trees. The data table below indicates the percentages of tan beetles and dark-brown beetles present before and after the fire.
The increase in the percentage of dark-brown beetles over time was most likely due to the fact that the*
The graph below represents the growth in length and mass of a fetus up to week 32. The length is measured in millimeters (mm) and the mass in grams (g).
Which statement best describes human fetal growth between weeks 26 and 32?*
Base your answers to questions 37 and 38 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The population of wolves in 1980 was close to*
An observable trend in the wolf and moose data between 1980 and 1995 is*
A student wants to test the hypothesis that an acidic environment will decrease enzyme activity. In the experiment, the student used an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and bubbles of oxygen. To test the hypothesis, the student should collect data on the number of oxygen bubbles produced at different*
Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents events that occur during embryonic development. Letters A through E represent structures.
Between which two letters does mitosis occur?*
Between which two letters does differentiation occur?*
The graph below represents a change in event A that leads to changes in events B and C.
Which row in the chart best identifies each event in the graph?
Which graph best shows changes in a population of yeast that develops in a test tube and completely consumes a limited supply of food?*
Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Five groups of corn seeds, each containing 275 seeds, were soaked for 1 hour in different concentrations of gibberellic acid, a plant growth hormone. After 1 hour, the seeds were rinsed in tap water and drained of all excess water. The seeds were then placed on paper towels and kept moist for 7 days. After 7 days, the growing stems were cut and weighed to determine the increase in growth. Then, the percent increase in growth compared to the growth of a group of untreated seeds was calculated. The results were recorded and are shown in the data table below.
Directions: Using the information given in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid, following the directions below.
Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis on the grid on the next page. *
Plot the data from the table on the grid on the next page. Surround each point with a small circle and connect the points. 
Identify the control group in this experiment. *
Which conclusion is supported by the data from this investigation?*
State how farmers should use gibberellic acid to grow the largest plants. Support your answer with data from this experiment. *
Base your answers to questions 49 and 50 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology.
The temperature range in a pond in which all three fish species could grow and survive is most likely*
In the pond where these fish live, temperature is both a*
The work of a cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles. Most of these molecules are proteins. Explain how the cell is able to make the many different proteins it needs. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify where in the cell the information necessary to construct a particular protein is located and the specific molecule that contains this information 
• identify both the cellular structure that assembles these proteins and the kinds of molecules that are used as the building blocks of the proteins *
Base your answers to questions 53 through 55 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a food web.
Identify two herbivores that compete for food in the food web above. 
Herbivores: _____________________________________ and _____________________________________*
Even though both hawks and owls have two sources of food, explain why hawks would be less likely to survive if a disease wiped out the mice. *
State the role of the decomposers in this food web. *
Base your answers to questions 56 through 59 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
There has been an increase in the number of dead birds found on the beaches of the Great Lakes. These birds were poisoned by a bacterial toxin in the lake water. The birds do not ingest enough water to become sick directly from the toxin found in the lake water. Scientists think that the cause of the increasing bird deaths lies with an invasive species— the zebra mussel. This freshwater organism was introduced into the Great Lakes accidentally by humans, and has become well established in the Great Lakes. Zebra mussels filter out microscopic organisms, as well as the toxins found in the lake water. The toxins become concentrated in the zebra mussels, which are eaten by small fish called gobies, and the gobies are eaten by the birds. The concentration increases in each level of the food chain. It appears that the introduction of the zebra muscles into the Great Lakes has resulted in a new food chain that increases the concentration of the naturally occurring toxins and passes dangerous levels on to these top-level predators. This process is known as bioaccumulation.
Why are the accidentally introduced zebra mussels referred to as an invasive species? *
On the diagram below, complete the food chain by filling in the correct organisms from the passage. 
How has bioaccumulation resulted in the deaths of large numbers of birds even though the toxin level in the lake water is not high enough to make them sick? *
Describe one possible effect that the increased deaths of the birds could have on the rest of the ecosystem. *
The immune system protects against foreign substances and even some cancers. Explain how the immune system functions. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify one way the immune system fights pathogens 
• identify the substance in a vaccine that stimulates the immune system 
• describe the response of the immune system to the vaccine 
• identify one disease that damages the immune system and state how it affects this system *
Base your answer to question 64-68 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Some poinsettia plants have green leaves that turn red. A garden club decided to study the color change of poinsettia plants. Knowing that poinsettias change color during the short daylight periods of winter, they decided to investigate the effect of different daylight lengths on color change.
Design a controlled experiment using three experimental groups that could be used to determine if the number of hours of daylight has an effect on the color change of poinsettias. In your experimental design, be sure to:
• state one hypothesis the experiment would test 
• state one way the three experimental groups would differ 
• identify two factors that must be kept the same in all three groups 
• identify the dependent variable in the experiment 
• describe experimental results that would support your hypothesis *
An accident resulted in a man’s hand being cut off from his arm. Paramedics arriving first on the scene placed the cut-off hand in ice. The man and his hand were flown to a hospital, where doctors successfully reattached the hand to his arm. Explain, using one biological reason, why placing the hand in ice improved the chances of saving it. *
Base your answer to question 70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Researchers monitoring the atmosphere of Earth report that the ozone shield has stopped shrinking and will most likely be on the mend over the next several decades. These findings were based on analyses of satellite records and instruments monitoring the surface of Earth. Scientists credit an international agreement to phase out the production of ozone- depleting chemicals for this turnabout.
State one reason why the ozone shield is important. *
Base your answers to questions 71 and 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Climate Change for Biotechnology
Many people were surveyed in 2002 and asked their opinion of some procedures that involved biotechnology. These procedures are listed below.
• Genetic testing to detect inheritable diseases, such as cystic fibrosis
• Cloning human cells to replace diseased cells in an individual with Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, or heart disease
• Using xenotransplants introducing human genes into pigs to produce hearts for human transplants
• Genetically modifying crops (GM crops) to make crop plants insect resistant
• Genetically modifying foods (GM foods) to make them higher in protein
These people were asked whether the technology should be used, if the technology was risky, if the technology is morally acceptable, and if they would encourage the technology. Those surveyed rated each technology as “definitely agree,” “tend to agree,” “no opinion,” “tend to disagree,” and “definitely disagree.” The responses were given a numerical score and then averaged together. The results of the survey are shown below.
Adapted from: Gaskell, et. al., AgBioForum, 2003, Volume 6, Article 12
Which biotechnology procedure did most people feel was the safest? Support your answer. 
State one possible advantage of xenotransplants. *
Which branching tree diagram shows that species W and Z are most closely related?*
Students noticed that some of their classmates have a hard time concentrating during class. They thought it may have some connection with the fact that these students consume energy drinks just before class. An experiment was proposed to find out if there is a connection between energy drinks and the lack of ability to concentrate in class. A properly designed experiment to determine this would include having*
Which technique could be used to separate pigments from a mixture?*
Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The differences seen in the beaks of the four species of finches are most likely the result of*
A person expressed concern that the vegetarian finch may face greater competition when other finch populations increase. State whether the vegetarian finch will face competition if the populations of warbler finches, woodpecker finches, and mangrove finches increase. Support your answer. *
Base your answers to questions 78 through 80 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
A laboratory procedure involving a microscope slide is represented in the diagram below.
State one purpose for this procedure. *
Identify one specific substance represented by the liquid in A. *
State the purpose of the paper towel labeled B. *
Base your answers to questions 81 and 82 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents two solutions, A and B, separated by a selectively permeable membrane.
A sample from solution A and solution B were each tested with blue-colored glucose indicator solution before the solutions were placed in the beaker. Which row represents the results?
Which statement best describes the outcome after 20 minutes?*
Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The relationship between lung capacity and gender was studied in a laboratory investigation. Relative lung capacity was measured by having each student fill a balloon with a deep breath and then measuring the circumference of the balloon. Each student was given three trials and the average balloon circumference was recorded in the data table below.
A student calculated the group average to be 441.8. State the specific error made in this calculation. *
A student concluded that “all females have a smaller lung capacity than males.” Is this a valid conclusion? Support your answer. *
Identify one biological condition or personal activity that could make it difficult for a person to perform well on a test of lung capacity. *