Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Regents Test, Full Exam Practice Online: living environment January 2015

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    Base your answer to question 43 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    human influences on the environment, human influences on basic processes of natural ecosystems fig: lenv12015-exam_g15.png

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    Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Onondaga Lake is a small lake located near Syracuse, New York. Industrialized municipal wastes have been polluting the lake for decades. Eating fish from the lake has been banned due to mercury concentrations in the fish. The data table below indicates the mercury concentrations in smallmouth bass taken from Onondaga Lake. Smallmouth bass eat smaller fish, which feed on aquatic plants.

    At each feeding level in the food chain, more mercury accumulates. The older and larger the fish, the greater the concentration of mercury.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv12015-exam_g22.png

    Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below, following the directions below.

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    Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Most animal fossils include hard body parts such as teeth and bones. Until recently, scientists had little hope that soft tissue could be preserved in the bones. A team of scientists has removed soft tissue containing a collagen protein from the leg bone of a 68-million-year-old fossil from a dinosaur, Tyrannosaurus rex. The technique of mass spectrometry was used to identify the sequences of certain molecules in several small fragments of the dinosaur collagen protein.

    The molecular sequences were compared to those of modern animals. The scientist found that the collagen protein of the Tyrannosaurus rex more closely resembled the collagen protein found in modern chickens than that in some other modern animals.

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    Base your answers to questions 50 through 52 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Found: A Plant-Eating Spider

    Spiders are meat-eaters. Until recently, scientists thought that was true for the roughly 40,000 spider species in the world. Now, researchers have discovered a spider that eats mostly plants.

    Bagheera kiplingi, a jumping spider, lives in Central America and Mexico. It nests in the leaves of acacia shrubs. Scientists have long known that ants live in these plants. The ants eat the plants’ little yellow vegetables. But scientists had no idea that the spiders eat the vegetables too.

    Christopher Meehan was a college student when he found the plant nibbling spiders. “I thought I was hallucinating,” he told TFK (Time for Kids). “But by the end of the day, I had seen about 100 more spiders eating plants.”

    Source: Time for Kids World Report,

    Edition 10/23/09 Vol. 15, #7 p.3

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    Base your answers to questions 53 through 55 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Inherited instructions control the color patterns of snakes. Some snakes that are not poisonous have colors that resemble the patterns on poisonous snakes. Predators avoid eating harmless snakes that have color patterns similar to those of the poisonous snakes. The results of a recent study indicate that predators in areas that have only harmless snakes do not avoid attacking snakes that have color patterns similar to poisonous snakes.

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    Base your answers to questions 60 through 62 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A Vaccine to Treat Addiction

    A vaccine for cocaine addiction has been developed. This vaccine temporarily blocks the effects of cocaine. The vaccine consists of a cocaine molecule attached to the surface of an inactive, harmless cholera protein.

    Since cocaine molecules alone are too small to stimulate the immune system to create antibodies, they are attached to the cholera protein. When people are injected with the vaccine, their bodies make antibodies against cholera. They also make antibodies against cocaine. When cocaine later enters the bloodstream, the antibodies bind to cocaine and prevent it from leaving the bloodstream, so it does not reach the brain. If the drug does not reach the brain, the user does not feel its effect. When antibodies were blocking the cocaine, people who took cocaine didn’t get an effect from it, so the drug lost its appeal. Later, an enzyme breaks down the cocaine and it is flushed out of the body.

    One problem revealed by the trial was that only 38 percent of vaccinated subjects developed high levels of antibodies against the drug. Additionally, the vaccine’s protection seems to last for only about two months. Users need to receive booster shots every few months for approximately two years to make a complete recovery from the addiction.

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    Base your answers to questions 63 and 64 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Mosquito Technologies of New York, Inc., has developed a Mosquito Killing System (MKS) to help control the mosquito population and reduce the transmission of West Nile Virus. The MKS works by taking advantage of the natural hunting strategies of mosquitoes, such as heat sensing and carbon dioxide detection. Beneficial insects do not use the same hunting strategies. The MKS unit produces heat and releases carbon dioxide in cycles, mimicking the breathing and body temperatures of humans, pets, and other warm-blooded animals. This attracts the mosquitoes to the device and, once inside, a vacuum pulls them in, where they pass through an electrocution grid, killing them. The mosquito remains are then returned to the environment through the bottom of the unit.

    The unit contains a solar-powered photocell that turns the device on at dusk and turns it off at dawn.

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    Base your answers to questions 65 through 67 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Blood Doping

    Blood is a fluid tissue, which means that blood cells are suspended in a fluid called plasma. Blood tests are concerned with not only the number of blood cells present, but with the amount of plasma that surrounds the cells.

    The diagram below represents tubes containing blood samples from an athlete before and after blood doping. Blood doping is an illegal practice reportedly used by some athletes a few weeks before an athletic event, and involves removing whole blood from an athlete, separating the oxygen-carrying red blood cells (RBCs), and then freezing them. These RBCs are thawed and returned to the athlete’s body just before the athlete competes. Serious health risks are associated with this practice.

    organization and patterns in Life, cell energetics, cellular respiration and APT fig: lenv12015-exam_g25.png

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    Base your answers to questions 68 and 69 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A woman wanted to remove the dandelion plants from her lawn. She went to the store and bought an herbicide spray that was supposed to kill the dandelions. She sprayed it on her lawn according to the directions. Within two weeks, almost all of the dandelions had died; however, a few dandelions remained.

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    Base your answers to questions 70 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Types of Predators

    When large predators, such as lions or wolves, are removed from a food web, smaller “mesopredators” step in to take their places, and the results may be severe. Mesopredators are usually smaller and more numerous than the larger “apex” predators that they replace. Some are also omnivores, eating plant and animal food sources, rather than eating the meat-only diet of the largest predators. Examples of mesopredators include coyotes, raccoons, and skunks.

    In 1874, General George Custer noted that there was an abundance of wolves, but few coyotes, in South Dakota. Today, there is an abundance of coyotes, but no wolves. The wolves were removed to protect domestic sheep, but now the coyotes are often responsible for attacking sheep and other animals. The cost of controlling mesopredators by human intervention can be very high, as mesopredators are very numerous and quickly “bounce back” after control efforts. Meanwhile, the number of apex predators that are endangered continues to increase.

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    Base your answers to question 78-79 on the Universal Genetic Code Chart below and on your knowledge of biology.

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv12015-exam_g30.png

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    Base your answers to questions 81 through 84 on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagrams represent the variations in the beaks of finches in the Galapagos Islands and the relative abundance of food sources on a certain island.

    labs, lab, the beaks of finches fig: lenv12015-exam_g32.png

    labs, lab, the beaks of finches fig: lenv12015-exam_g33.png

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