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Which statement is an example of the inter- dependence of organisms?*
Residents of a town are concerned that a recently built factory could pose health risks. Scientists were asked to investigate the effects of the factory on the health of local residents. The most relevant information they reported was that*
Farmers may someday clone their best milk- producing cow into a whole herd. What potential disadvantage might be important to consider in having such a large group of clones on one farm?*
DNA replication occurs in preparation for*
An individual eats a hamburger. Which two systems must interact to transfer the nutrients in the hamburger to human muscle tissue?*
The diagram below shows cell A completing a life process.
Cell A performs functions similar to the tissues and systems in complex, multicellular organisms. This process results in*
The shape of a protein molecule directly determines its*
The diagram below represents a cell and some molecules in its environment.
Which molecule would require the use of energy in order to be brought into the cell?*
Many domestic plants that are currently used for food by humans share a wild plant ancestor. The changes that have occurred in four common plants and the results are shown in the chart below.
What event most likely produced the changes that occurred in the wild plant ancestor?*
A strand of DNA in a skin cell contains the bases:
After the cell is exposed to ultraviolet light, the strand contains the bases:
Which statement describes the result of this exposure?*
An ameba, a one-celled organism, can move, ingest, and transport materials within the cell, because it has*
In humans, the placenta is essential to the embryo for*
A student infected by a common cold virus ran a low-grade fever. After a few days, the student’s temperature returned to normal and the student was free of cold symptoms. The fever served as*
Many animals have developed courtship behaviors. Males will often dance, swim, or sing in a particular way to attract a female. Males who are more successful at the courtship behavior will have a greater chance of having more offspring. This behavior is a result of*
After a zygote is formed, specialization of cells occurs. Through which process do the cells of a zygote become specialized?*
A farmer wanted to rid his apple trees of a particular leaf-eating insect. He sprayed his trees with an insecticide that killed 98% of the insects. The survival of 2% of this population of insects is most likely due to*
Which occurrence represents an example of evolution?*
Populations of aspen trees in the western United States are being destroyed by an unexplained illness. The altered landscape is affecting the animals that live there. Populations of deer mice are increasing greatly in these areas. Unfortunately, these mice often carry a virus that is deadly to humans. This scenario best illustrates that*
The paramecium is a single-celled organism that reproduces asexually. The offspring of a paramecium usually contain*
A dead or weakened pathogen used to establish immunity would most likely be found in*
Which statement is true for all of the organisms in the ecosystem represented in the diagram below?
When a natural disaster destroys a stable ecosystem, the area is temporarily less stable than before. This is most likely due to*
An individual walks out of his air-conditioned (75°F) home into the hot outside environment (85°F). His ability to adjust to this changing environment involves a mechanism similar to*
Nonrenewable resources are*
Dodder, a plant with no chlorophyll, grows on a living plant of a different species from which it obtains nutrients. Which pair of terms describes this relationship?*
Three human hormones most directly involved in sexual reproduction are*
At one point, scientists observed that the ozone shield was getting thinner. They warned that the loss of the effectiveness of this shield may lead to an increase in*
As it grows from a seed to a mature plant, a plant will grow taller and thicker. Which are abiotic factors most responsible for the increase in the mass of the plant?*
Structures in an animal cell are represented in the diagram below.
Which row in the chart correctly identifies the functions of structures A, B, and C?
The diagram below represents how air pollution may move across the eastern United States.
In order to reduce the amount of air pollution in Pennsylvania, which change is necessary?*
Base your answers to questions 31 and 32 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents part of a food web.
Which sequence of organisms represents a food chain within this food web?*
Which population would be most immediately affected by the removal of the lizard population?*
During an investigation, a student measures out 15 grams of salt. Then, he measures 15 milliliters of water and adds the salt to it. Next, he measures a 1 centimeter wide by 4 centimeters long section of plant leaf. Which list of tools is arranged in the order that the student used them?*
Base your answers to questions 34 through 36 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph shows the masses of different types of plants found in an area of the Adirondack Mountains after a forest fire occurred.
Based on the information provided in the graph, the process that is occurring is*
The time shown in the graph is most likely measured in*
The mass of plants shown in the graph refers to the mass of a number of*
Base your answers to questions 37 and 38 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The dia- gram represents a portion of a starch molecule.
The building blocks for this molecule are*
The energy in this molecule is stored*
Base your answer to question 39 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
A genetically modified pig, nicknamed the “enviropig,” has the ability to produce a bacterial enzyme in its saliva that helps reduce the amount of phosphorus in its wastes. Phosphorus pollution is a serious environmental concern. Enviropigs are expensive, but the cost is balanced against the benefit to the environment. There is also a concern that the US Department of Agriculture still has not cleared enviropig meat for human consumption.
Government agencies and citizens should propose the use of enviropig in the future only after*
Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Researchers have produced rice plants that can withstand being completely submerged for up to two weeks. This is good news for farmers in the flood regions of Southeast Asia. The farmers in this region rely heavily on this crop. The diagram below illustrates the process used to genetically modify plants, such as rice.
The molecules used to cut, copy, and connect the DNA segments used in this process are*
The best explanation for these modified rice plants being flood resistant is that*
The diagram below represents two cells viewed using the same magnification with the same microscope.
One possible conclusion that can be drawn about the activity of these two cells is that*
The diagram below represents the processes leading to the formation of a human embryo.
The correct sequence for processes 1, 2, and 3 represented in the diagram is
Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
For most animals, the sex of the offspring is determined by sex chromosomes. In some species of reptiles, such as the painted turtle, there are no sex chromosomes. It has been discovered that the sex of the offspring is determined by the temperature of the nest in which the egg develops.
Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below, following the directions below.
Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each axis. *
Plot the data for percent males on the grid. Connect the points and surround each point with a small circle. 
Plot the data for percent females on the grid. Connect the points and surround each point with a small triangle. 
The fact that the sex of the painted turtle offspring is controlled by the temperature of the nest is an example of*
Base your answers to questions 48 through 50 on the information and graphs below and on your knowledge of biology. The graphs represent the results of two investigations using leaf disks from spinach plants.
Small disks were cut from spinach leaves that had been treated to remove any air from inside the leaf. The disks were placed in a solution that allowed them to carry out photosynthesis. At first, all the disks sank to the bottom of the container. These disks were then used for two different investigations.
The disks were divided into five groups. Each group was exposed to light of a different intensity, measured in watts per meter squared (W/m2). Some of the disks began to float. The results of the first investigation are shown in the graph below.
State the relationship between increasing light intensity and the percentage of disks floating at the conclusion of Investigation 1. *
The substance produced inside the leaf disks that caused them to float to the surface of the solution is*
Which color of light appears to be least effective for photosynthesis in spinach leaves?*
Base your answer to question 51 on the information and photograph below and on your knowledge of biology. The photograph shows an oriental hornet.
Oriental hornets are unique insects. A yellow pigment in the body of the insect converts solar energy to electrical energy. Plants also convert energy from the Sun.
Identify the organelle present in plants where this conversion takes place. *
Base your answer to question 52 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The SUNY Solar Car Model Racing Team’s Sunhawk: Car of the Future?
The Sunhawk, a car built by students at SUNY New Paltz, prompted Forbes Magazine to ask “Is The $250,000 Sunhawk the Solar Car of the Future?” These cars show the most advanced solar technology and vehicle construction.
There are trade-offs involved in the use of solar-powered cars. Provide one advantage and one disadvantage of owning a solar car. 
Base your answer to question 53 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Ten years ago, scientists discovered a well-preserved set of dinosaur remains in China. This dinosaur, which walked on Earth about 125 million years ago, had feathers and was about the same size as a turkey — but don’t be fooled. This dino’s bite was a lot worse than a turkey’s gobble. After a close (and careful!) examination of the dino’s teeth, scientists recently concluded that this dinosaur was probably poisonous. The study was led by David Burnham, who works and teaches at the University of Kansas in Lawrence.
State one inference that could be made based on the fact that this dinosaur had feathers. *
Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the photograph and information below and on your knowledge of biology.
A Great Larvae Meal
New Caledonian crows consume a wide range of foods. These crows require tools to extract the larvae of wood boring beetles from their burrows. A bird pokes a larva with a stick until the larva is disturbed enough to bite the stick and hang on to it. The bird is then able to pull the larva out of its burrow. These larvae, with their unusual diet, have a distinct chemical that can be found in the feathers and blood of crows—allowing scientists to determine the percentage of the crows’ diet that is made up of beetle larvae. Scientists found that the beetle larvae are so energy-rich that just a few could satisfy the daily energy requirement for a crow. The crows with the greatest skill in using a twig as a tool benefit most in terms of nutrition.
State one reason why the offspring of crows skilled at using twigs as tools would have the greatest chance of survival. *
State one reason why some members of a population of crows equally skilled in the use of twigs have different rates of survival. *
Base your answer to question 56-57 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
African violet plants are grown for their delicate, colorful flowers and furry, soft leaves. People often want to touch the leaves and brush the hairy leaves with their fingers. Growers and plant owners were concerned that this could negatively affect the plant. Of particular concern was the presence of body lotion or other skin products on the hands of persons touching the leaves.
A student thought this might be the basis of a science project. He selected two African violet plants. Ten leaves on each of the two plants were brushed with a gloved hand for 30 seconds, once a day, for a period of five days. The difference was that leaves of the second plant were brushed with a gloved hand that had hand lotion applied to the glove.
As part of the peer review process, evaluate the student’s experiment. As part of your evaluation, be sure to:
• state one possible hypothesis for the experiment proposed by the student 
• describe the type of data that should be collected to determine if the brushing with lotion was having a negative effect on the African violet plant *
Base your answers to questions 58 and 59 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
Scientists studied the distribution of a species of pocket mouse that lived in the sandy desert regions of the southwestern United States. They are eaten by a variety of predators. Pocket mice are active at night, and feed on seeds and grasses. A single female mouse can reproduce several times each year, producing a litter of 3 to 13 offspring each time. Each new litter is considered a generation.
A volcanic eruption that resulted in lava flows changed the color of the area that the mice inhabit from light brown to black. Data from the scientist’s research of the population are shown in the chart below.
State the role of mutation or recombination in the appearance of the trait for black fur color in the pocket mouse population. *
Explain why the percentage of black pocket mice changed so much after the volcanic eruption. *
Base your answers to questions 60 and 61 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
In 2003, as a result of the Human Genome Project, the complete sequence of all the bases in human DNA was released to the public. Although knowing the entire sequence of bases has proven valuable, scientists are currently working to map genes. Mapping genes involves determining the exact location of each gene. Since much of human DNA does not code for a protein, it is challenging to figure out which segments are actual genes. Often, scientists look at the percent composition of bases in a segment of DNA. If the segment of DNA has a large percentage of C and G bases (together over 50%), it is likely that it is a gene and codes for a protein.
A scientist analyzes the bases in a segment of DNA from a human skin cell to determine if it codes for a protein. The base A is 12% of the bases in this segment of DNA. Calculate the percentage of bases that would be C. 
Is it likely this segment of DNA codes for a protein? Circle yes or no and support your answer. 
Circle one: Yes or No*
Base your answers to questions 62 through 64 on the illustration and information below and on your knowledge of biology. The illustration is of a Tasmanian devil.
The Tasmanian devil is the largest surviving carnivorous marsupial in Australia. It is in danger of extinction due to an unusual type of cancer called Devil Facial Tumor Disease (DFTD). It can be passed from one individual to another through wounds that occur when they fight over food. Tumor cells in the mouth of an infected animal break off and enter the wound on an uninfected animal. The tumor cells multiply in the body of the newly infected devil, forming new tumors that eventually kill the animal.
Recent research has shown that the immune system of a Tasmanian devil accepts tumor cells from another devil as if they were cells from its own body. The tumor cells are ignored by the immune system. No immune response develops against them, and the cancerous cells multiply. Scientists predict that DFTD could wipe out all the remaining Tasmanian devils in 25 years, unless a treatment is developed.
Using the terms antigens and antibodies, explain why the tumor cells are ignored by the immune system in Tasmanian devils. *
Explain how cancer cells differ from normal cells. *
Describe one possible way to maintain a population of healthy, uninfected Tasmanian devils until a treatment or cure can be found. *
Base your answers to questions 65 through 67 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. The photograph below shows a Canada lynx, a mammal native to North America.
Lynx are found in areas where there is deep, soft snow cover during the winter months. The body design of the Canada lynx helps keep the animal on top of the soft snow. Several unique characteristics, such as the design of its feet and its weight, enable the cat to successfully chase and catch snowshoe hares, its primary source of food. Snowshoe hares are also able to remain on top of the snow.
Increased winter recreation has created packed snow trails in lynx habitat. This allows coyotes and cougars to compete with lynx.
Explain why coyotes were not in competition with the lynx prior to the presence of packed snow trails. *
Describe the niche that the lynx, coyote, and cougar are competing to fill. *
Explain how the carrying capacity affects the number of predators in an area. *
Base your answers to questions 68 and 69 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Cowherds Discovering Ticks Are for the Birds
South African cowherds [cowboys] are discovering that when it comes to debugging their cattle, nature knows best. Generations of cattle owners who dipped their livestock in pesticides ended up killing not only the ticks that feast on them, but also the red-billed oxpeckers [birds] that eat the ticks. Now environmentalists want to cut out the pesticides, hand the job back to the birds and in the process save them from extinction.…
The bird is famous for its bright red bill, yellow ringed eyes and voracious appetite for ticks. An oxpecker can eat 13,000 of them [ticks] in a day, and meals are everywhere— on antelope, horses, cattle, buffalo, rhino, lion, elephant and leopard. The ticks carry a host of illnesses, including red-water disease, a common killer of cattle, but [ticks] are harmless to oxpeckers.…
Source: Eric Naki, Associated Press writer
State one way that the use of pesticides to kill ticks could lead to the decline of the oxpecker population. *
State one ecological advantage of using oxpeckers to solve the problem with these ticks. *
Base your answers to questions 70 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Over the past few decades, researchers have observed declining numbers in two species of penguins native to the West Antarctic peninsula. New evidence is pointing to a decline in their food supply as the primary cause for the recent drops in their numbers. These penguins feed on krill, small animals that grow and develop under ice masses. The graphs below show data related to two factors: atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and Antarctic ice mass. The diagram of a generalized Antarctic food web illustrates the role of the penguins.
State one possible relationship between CO2 levels and the change in Antarctic ice mass. *
Explain why the change in ice mass is resulting in a decline in the penguin populations. *
State one specific way in which humans might have caused the changes in atmospheric CO2 levels. *
Base your answers to questions 73 through 75 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents an experimental setup.
Which statement best describes what would most likely be observed after 20 minutes?*
Which term correctly identifies the process by which molecules move through the dialysis tube membrane?*
A student filled a dialysis tube with 97% water solution and sealed the ends. The tube and its contents had a mass of 55 grams. The student placed the tube in a solution, and the mass of the tube and its contents increased to 60 grams. Into which solution was the dialysis tube placed?*
Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
Scientists attempted to determine the evolutionary relationships between three different finch species, A, B, and C. In order to do this, they examined the physical characteristics and DNA of these species. DNA was extracted from all three species and analyzed using gel electrophoresis. The results are shown in the diagram.
Which statement best describes the method used above to determine the evolutionary relationships between three species of finches?*
Based on the data they collected using gel electrophoresis, label the branching tree diagram below. Write the letters A, B, and C, to represent the possible evolutionary relationships between species A, B, and C. 
Base your answers to questions 78 through 80 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
Two species of finches found on a particular Galapagos island eat the seeds of a certain variety of plant. The relative strength of their beaks is shown in the graph below.
One of the finch species has a slightly smaller, weaker beak. Is this species 1 or species 2? Support your answer with information from the graph. 
Select the point on the graph where beak strength of the two bird species is equal. Support your answer. 
If the environment on the island changed and the seeds of more of the plants became harder to crack open, describe what the graph might look like after many years have passed. *
Base your answers to questions 81 and 82 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
Using a microscope and a wet-mount slide, a student observed a pond water sample containing paramecia, which are single-celled freshwater organisms. He noticed that there was a structure within each living paramecium that contracted regularly—about four times each minute. He researched the organism in his science textbook and found that the structure was a contractile vacuole and its function was to remove excess water from the paramecium.
In the diagram below, a paramecium is represented as seen through a microscope. The function of the contractile vacuole is described.
He decided to determine if the concentration of salt in the environment of the paramecium would affect the rate at which the contractile vacuole would contract.
The process used to remove excess water from the paramecium by the contractile vacuole is*
The student predicted that the contractile vacuole would contract fewer times in one minute in a solution that had a higher concentration of salt than that found in typical pond water. This prediction is most likely*
Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Five individuals had their pulses taken in beats per minute (bpm) before and after exer- cise. The data are shown in the chart below.
State one reason why an individual’s pulse rate increased during exercise. *
Calculate the average pulse rate before exercise for this group, to the nearest tenth. 
State why the individuals in this group have different pulse rates before exercise. *