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Which sequence represents structures organized from most complex to least complex?*
Autotrophs differ from heterotrophs in that only autotrophs*
Burmese pythons are large snakes that have been introduced into the Florida Everglades ecosystem. Burmese pythons and alligators hunt the same prey. One likely effect of the introduction of the pythons is that*
Which activity enables humans to produce new genetic combinations in other organisms?*
Before a cell divides, an exact copy of each chromosome is made by the process of*
Some time ago, there were thousands of California condors in North America. Large numbers were poisoned from lead in bullets that were used to kill the animals the condors fed on. An effort was made to help save this large scavenger. There are now more than 350 California condors in North America. The condors most likely increased in number because humans decided to*
In humans, the maintenance of a stable internal temperature is a direct result of*
Which molecules are needed to cut and copy segments of DNA?*
Evolution can occur at different rates; however, for evolution to occur, there must be*
The two reactions illustrated in the diagrams below often occur when a foreign substance enters the body.
The cells labeled A and B are examples of cells known as*
The diagram below represents a protein molecule present in some living things.
This type of molecule is composed of a sequence of*
Three human actions that have been made possible in recent times are:
• Doctors are able to diagnose and treat some fetal problems prior to the birth of a child.
• Cloning can produce large numbers of plants that are resistant to drought.
• Male insects can be sterilized with radiation to prevent them from mating successfully.
Which statement summarizes these three actions?*
Natural selection is best described as*
Which statement best describes a situation where competition occurs in an ecosystem?*
A woman changes her hair color to red; however, her children will not inherit this red hair color because the woman does not have*
Fossils provide evidence that*
A male frigatebird displays to the female by inflating its large red throat sac, throwing its head back, vibrating its wings, and producing a “drumming” sound with its throat sac. For the frigatebird, this behavior has most likely resulted in*
Plant species X lives in a hot, dry environment. Slowly, over hundreds of years, the climate becomes wetter. Fungi attack species X and cause the population of species X to decrease. However, plant species X could survive if the plants*
The diagram below represents reproduction in a yeast cell. The genes in the bud are identical to the genes in the parent.
This type of production of offspring is a form of*
A human cell that contains all of the information necessary for the growth and development of a complete organism is*
When would exposure to a potentially harmful substance be most likely to damage many organs in a developing embryo?*
The human female reproductive system is represented below.
Within which structure does the placenta normally develop?*
An energy-rich organic compound needed by organisms is*
SCIDS (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is a disorder where a genetic mutation inhibits the production and functioning of T-cells. T-cells are special types of white blood cells that play a role in the body’s immune response. A possible symptom of SCIDS would be an increase in the*
An organ, such as a kidney, used for transplant needs to be tested for compatibility with the person who is to receive the organ. If this is not done, the*
A researcher concludes from a 10-year study that the biodiversity of an ecosystem had increased. Which set of observations represents evidence for this claim?*
The final consumers in many food webs are*
Abandoned farmland that once grew corn is now covered with bushes and small trees. These observed changes resulted directly from*
The overuse of chemical fertilizers has resulted in the growth of some lawns in which decomposers cannot live. This would interfere most directly with the ability of the lawn ecosystem to*
On Long Island, several businesses use geothermal technology. This involves taking heat from within Earth and using it to heat buildings. One benefit of this technology is that it*
Recently, researchers from Stanford University have changed mouse skin cells into mouse nerve cells. This was accomplished by inserting genes that control the synthesis of certain proteins into the skin cells. This type of research is often successful in advancing knowledge regarding the functioning of human cells because*
In the experimental setup below, which substance would be used to prove that the gas produced by the yeast in the vacuum bottle could change the pH of the liquid in the flask?
Which statement best expresses a basic scientific assumption?*
The diagram below represents a cycle that occurs in nature.
Which phrase describes a human activity that could have a negative effect on this cycle?*
Base your answers to questions 35 through 37 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.
A farmer growing potatoes notices aphids, a type of insect, feeding on the plants. An insecticide was sprayed on the plants several times over a two-year period. The graph represents samples of three different generations of insecticide-resistant and nonresistant aphids over this time period.
The resistance gene was present in the aphid population as a result of*
In year three, the farmer discontinued the use of the insecticide. Which statement would best predict the population in generation 4?*
One negative consequence of using an insecticide is that it*
The activity of a single-celled organism is represented in the diagram below.
Which concept is best illustrated by this diagram?*
The chart below provides information about two scientific discoveries in the field of biology.
Which statement is the best interpretation of the material presented in the chart?*
Base your answers to questions 40 through 43 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. This diagram represents the roles of different parts of the human body in keeping blood sugar at a balanced, normal level over time.
The diagram shows human body structures that are coordinated to maintain homeostasis. Which row correctly identifies the functions of these structures?
When body system X releases too much sugar into the blood, the body can maintain homeostasis by making*
If organ Y becomes unable to produce enough hormone B, then homeostasis would be disrupted. To restore homeostasis and compensate for the lack of hormone B, one useful action would be to*
If body system X temporarily stops releasing sugar into the blood, a likely response of the body would be to*
Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information, diagram, and table below and on your knowledge of biology.
A concentrated starch solution was placed in a thistle tube with a semi-permeable membrane covering the wide opening. It was then placed in a beaker of water. The height of the solution in the tube was measured every 5 minutes for 25 minutes. The setup and the data collected are shown below.
Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below, following the directions below.
Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each labeled axis. *
Plot the data for height on the grid. Connect the points and surround each point with a small circle. 
Explain why the height of the solution in the thistle tube increased during the 25-minute period. *
The experiment was repeated, and an amber-colored solution was added to the water in the beaker. After 10 minutes, the water in the beaker remained amber-colored and the starch solution had turned blue-black. The most likely reason for this observation is that*
Base your answer to question 48 on the information and diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology.
When fish of certain species are injured, a chemical substance stored in skin cells of the fish is released into the water. This chemical causes an alarm response among other fish of the same species in the area. Nearby fish of this species become more alert and group together near the bottom.
Explain why the chemical released from the injured fish may not cause an alarm response in other fish species. *
Base your answers to questions 49 through 51 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The process represented in the diagram is*
The original gene for the production of a human hormone was most likely removed from a*
State one possible reason why a gene for the production of a human hormone would be placed in bacterial DNA. *
Base your answers to questions 52 through 55 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
The lake sturgeon is a fish that often grows over six feet long and can weigh close to two hundred pounds. It is currently an endangered species in the Great Lakes area, although the species has lived in those lakes and rivers for millions of years. Now, there is a program to increase the sturgeon population by reintroducing lake sturgeon to areas where they have disappeared.
Like the lake sturgeon, bloater fish are also found in the Great Lakes. Both find their food on or near the bottoms of lakes. They eat a variety of small organisms, including insect larvae, worms, and clams. These small organisms feed on algae.
Identify one population that will decrease in size after the lake sturgeon are added to the new ecosystems. Support your answer. *
Part of the food web of a lake ecosystem is represented in the diagram below. Indicate the position in the food web where each organism listed below would be placed, by writing the name of each in the appropriate box. 
Identify which population, other than lake sturgeon, will increase in size after the lake sturgeon are added to the new ecosystems. Support your answer. *
State what the arrows in the food web represent. *
Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the information and drawing below and on your knowledge of biology. The drawing represents a salamander. Salamanders are small amphibians that live in a variety of environments.
Two species of salamander inhabit an island. The habitat on each side of the island is different. One side tends to be wet; the other side tends to be dry. Researchers want to know if the salamanders will survive equally well on either side of the island. Species A lives on the wet side of the island, while Species B lives on the dry side of the island. Researchers develop two artificial habitats, one that simulates conditions on the wet side and one that simulates conditions on the dry side.
Explain why researchers would put the salamanders in an artificial environment, as opposed to conducting the experiment in their natural habitat. *
Researchers put three salamanders of each species in each of the two different artificial environments. Why would other scientists question the validity of the conclusions based on this setup? *
Base your answers to questions 58 through 61 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
People in Albany and New York City are using “green roofs” to improve the environment. A green roof can be added to many buildings that have large, flat roofs. Green roofs have three parts: a protective layer to separate plant roots from the roof of the building, an absorptive layer to catch and hold rainwater, and a layer of plants. Often, green roofs use Sedum, a short, desert plant, because it is efficient at storing water in its leaves and can withstand the colder climate.
A green roof saves energy, reduces carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and prevents rainwater and melting snow from overloading sewer systems. It can also protect the roof of a building from damage. However, green roofs can be expensive to install, and require care and maintenance.
Most varieties of Sedum are not native plants in Albany or New York City. State one reason why it may be dangerous to introduce a new species to an established ecosystem. *
State one reason why a green roof reduces the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. *
State one reason why it is important to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. *
State one disadvantage of a green roof. *
A scientist took samples from a culture of E. coli bacteria and placed them in each of 100 petri dishes. Once the bacteria began to grow in the dishes, she exposed 50 of the dishes to x-ray radiation and 50 to natural light. After five days, she examined samples of DNA from the bacteria and recorded any differences she found between the DNA of the two groups. State one hypothesis the experiment would test. *
Base your answers to questions 63 and 64 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
Super Vaccine Could Eliminate Flu
Every flu season, vaccine makers must bet on which strain of influenza A will pose the greatest threat to the public, and millions of Americans must decide whether to get a shot. In August, virologist Gary Nabel at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced progress toward a universal flu vaccine: two shots of it could provide years of protection from every known influenza A virus.
“We use a prime-boost strategy, meaning that we immunize with two vehicles that deliv- er the vaccine in different ways,” Nabel says. In their experimental treatment, he and his colleagues injected mice, ferrets, and monkeys with viral DNA, causing their muscle cells to produce hemagglutinin, a protein found on the surface of all flu viruses. The animals’ immune systems then began making antibodies that latch onto the protein and disable the virus. The researchers followed the DNA injection with a traditional seasonal flu shot, which contains dead viruses. This one-two punch protected the test subjects against influenza A viruses that had emerged in 1934 and 2007, and other experiments showed that the antibodies it generated successfully neutralized a wide variety of flu strains. Nabel’s col- leagues at the NIH are already testing similar approaches in humans.
Source: Rowe, A. “Super Vaccine Could Eliminate Flu.”
Discover, Jan./Feb. 2011, p. 37.
Identify one specific difference, other than it is a two-step vaccination, between Nabel’s vaccination and a traditional flu vaccine. *
Explain how injecting dead or weakened viruses into a person can help to fight against future infections from that virus. *
Base your answers to questions 65 through 68 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Bald Eagle Facts
• Bald eagles eat primarily fish, carrion (dead animals), smaller birds, and rodents. Their most important non-carrion food is fish, which they catch by swooping down and grabbing fish that are near the surface of the water.
• The number of nesting pairs in the lower 48 United States increased from fewer than 450 in the early 1960s to more than 4,500 adult bald eagle nesting pairs in the 1990s. Today, there are an estimated 9,789 nesting pairs of bald eagles.
• Bald eagles are found in large numbers in certain areas during the winter (known as roosts). These winter roosts are located in areas where prey are plentiful. Winter roosts are protected under federal law, and managed with a buffer zone to reduce human disturbance. As winter ends, the eagles return to their summer nesting/hunting areas.
Bald Eagle Research
In the winter of 2009, volunteers from an Audubon group conducted a survey of roosting bald eagles at four locations in an area in the lower Hudson River Valley. The data below show the average number of eagles sighted and the number of visits made by the volunteers each month. Among the other data collected were percent ice cover and percent cloud cover on the surface of the water. The eagles fly freely between these four sites, depending on a variety of conditions.
Some of the data are shown in the table below.
State one reason why the percent ice cover is important to the ability of eagles to obtain food. *
What inference can be made about the percent ice cover at Croton Reservoir between January and February 2009? Support your answer. *
State one reason why the number of eagles sighted showed a change at all four sites between February and March. *
State one possible reason why a popular hiking trail in this area is closed during eagle roosting seasons. *
Base your answers to questions 69 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Coral Reef Ecosystems
There are many ecological interactions that maintain the biodiversity present in coral reefs. In addition to coral, microscopic algae, seaweed, sea grasses, sponges and worms, and a variety of fish are among the organisms that live in reef ecosystems. Ocean currents often link different reef systems and move organisms from one reef area to another. This movement is a factor in repopulating a reef that has been damaged by environmental changes.
One environmental change involves an increased growth of seaweed. When the population of seaweed increases, the reef shifts from a coral-dominated ecosystem to a seaweed-dominated ecosystem. This change disrupts the relationships between the organisms that live there.
Studies have shown that, as the density of seaweed in a reef area increases, the number of fish that eat the seaweed in that area decreases. This may be due to the presence of more predators, or the taste of the more mature plants. The fish move to areas where there is less seaweed growth. As this trend continues, the reef areas are taken over by the seaweed. Once this happens, it is very hard to remove the seaweed and restore the reef to a healthy ecosystem.
In addition to this problem, temperature changes are threatening the ocean currents that connect the reef systems. A change in the currents would reduce the movement of fish larvae from one area to another. This contributes to the seaweed problem.
State the role of the sea grasses in the reef ecosystem. *
Identify one abiotic factor that is affecting the stability of the coral reef ecosystems and state how the factor identified is important to the coral reef ecosystems. 
State one reason why it is important to maintain the stability of the coral reefs. *
State one advantage of the fish larvae moving by ocean currents into a damaged reef ecosystem. *
Base your answers to questions 73 and 74 on the diagram below, which represents a process that occurs in living cells, and on your knowledge of biology.
The process shown in the diagram is*
Structure X is a*
Base your answers to questions 75 through 77 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
A finch that picks small insects out from cracks in the bark of trees would most likely have a beak that is*
Which statement is a basic assumption from The Beaks of Finches lab?*
State two reasons why the large ground finch and sharp-billed ground finch could live on the same island but not compete for food, even though they both eat mainly plant food. 
Base your answer to question 78 on the table below and on your knowledge of biology. The table shows which of four enzymes are present in three related plant species.
The tree diagrams below show two possible evolutionary relationships between the three species.
In the space below, write the number of the tree diagram that shows the most probable evolutionary relationship between the three species. Support your answer. 
Tree diagram: __________*
Base your answers to questions 79 and 80 on the diagram below, which represents the shrinking of a cell in response to an increase in the concentration of a substance outside of the cell.
Identify substance A. *
Identify one likely substance in the environment of the cell that caused this response. *
A student lifted weights after school and found that his muscles started to burn. He couldn’t continue to lift the weights after prolonged exercising. This muscle fatigue is most likely due to*
Base your answers to questions 82 and 83 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents three sections of a cell membrane showing three different methods involved in the transport of various molecules across the membrane.
Methods A and B are classified as methods of passive transport because they do not require*
Using information from the diagram, state one reason why the movement of molecules in method C represents active transport. *
State one reason why some species might have similar body structures even if they are not closely related. *
A student went out to the school track and walked two laps, ran two laps, and then walked two more laps. On the grid below, draw a line that shows what most likely happened to the pulse rate of the student during these activities.