Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Regents Test, Full Exam Practice Online: living environment August 2016

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    Base your answers to questions 35 through 37 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A farmer growing potatoes notices aphids, a type of insect, feeding on the plants. An insecticide was sprayed on the plants several times over a two-year period. The graph represents samples of three different generations of insecticide-resistant and nonresistant aphids over this time period.

    genetics and biotechnology, heredity affected due to changes in DNA fig: lenv82016-exam_g7.png

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    Base your answers to questions 40 through 43 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. This diagram represents the roles of different parts of the human body in keeping blood sugar at a balanced, normal level over time.

    organization and patterns in Life, interactions among structural componenets, homeostasis and immunity, maintainance of homeostasis, interaction and control mechanisms fig: lenv82016-exam_g10.png

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    Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information, diagram, and table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A concentrated starch solution was placed in a thistle tube with a semi-permeable membrane covering the wide opening. It was then placed in a beaker of water. The height of the solution in the tube was measured every 5 minutes for 25 minutes. The setup and the data collected are shown below.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv82016-exam_g12.png

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv82016-exam_g13.png

    Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below, following the directions below.

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    Base your answer to question 48 on the information and diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology.

    When fish of certain species are injured, a chemical substance stored in skin cells of the fish is released into the water. This chemical causes an alarm response among other fish of the same species in the area. Nearby fish of this species become more alert and group together near the bottom.

    organization and patterns in Life, cellular communication fig: lenv82016-exam_g15.png

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    Base your answers to questions 49 through 51 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    genetics and biotechnology, technology of genetic engineering fig: lenv82016-exam_g16.png

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    Base your answers to questions 52 through 55 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The lake sturgeon is a fish that often grows over six feet long and can weigh close to two hundred pounds. It is currently an endangered species in the Great Lakes area, although the species has lived in those lakes and rivers for millions of years. Now, there is a program to increase the sturgeon population by reintroducing lake sturgeon to areas where they have disappeared.

    Like the lake sturgeon, bloater fish are also found in the Great Lakes. Both find their food on or near the bottoms of lakes. They eat a variety of small organisms, including insect larvae, worms, and clams. These small organisms feed on algae.

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    Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the information and drawing below and on your knowledge of biology. The drawing represents a salamander. Salamanders are small amphibians that live in a variety of environments.

    Two species of salamander inhabit an island. The habitat on each side of the island is different. One side tends to be wet; the other side tends to be dry. Researchers want to know if the salamanders will survive equally well on either side of the island. Species A lives on the wet side of the island, while Species B lives on the dry side of the island. Researchers develop two artificial habitats, one that simulates conditions on the wet side and one that simulates conditions on the dry side.

    scientific inquiry, hypothesis and experiment design fig: lenv82016-exam_g18.png

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    Base your answers to questions 58 through 61 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Green Roofs

    People in Albany and New York City are using “green roofs” to improve the environment. A green roof can be added to many buildings that have large, flat roofs. Green roofs have three parts: a protective layer to separate plant roots from the roof of the building, an absorptive layer to catch and hold rainwater, and a layer of plants. Often, green roofs use Sedum, a short, desert plant, because it is efficient at storing water in its leaves and can withstand the colder climate.

    A green roof saves energy, reduces carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and prevents rainwater and melting snow from overloading sewer systems. It can also protect the roof of a building from damage. However, green roofs can be expensive to install, and require care and maintenance.

    human influences on the environment, human influences on global stabilities of ecosystems fig: lenv82016-exam_g19.png

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    Base your answers to questions 63 and 64 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Super Vaccine Could Eliminate Flu

    Every flu season, vaccine makers must bet on which strain of influenza A will pose the greatest threat to the public, and millions of Americans must decide whether to get a shot. In August, virologist Gary Nabel at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced progress toward a universal flu vaccine: two shots of it could provide years of protection from every known influenza A virus.

    “We use a prime-boost strategy, meaning that we immunize with two vehicles that deliv- er the vaccine in different ways,” Nabel says. In their experimental treatment, he and his colleagues injected mice, ferrets, and monkeys with viral DNA, causing their muscle cells to produce hemagglutinin, a protein found on the surface of all flu viruses. The animals’ immune systems then began making antibodies that latch onto the protein and disable the virus. The researchers followed the DNA injection with a traditional seasonal flu shot, which contains dead viruses. This one-two punch protected the test subjects against influenza A viruses that had emerged in 1934 and 2007, and other experiments showed that the antibodies it generated successfully neutralized a wide variety of flu strains. Nabel’s col- leagues at the NIH are already testing similar approaches in humans.

    Source: Rowe, A. “Super Vaccine Could Eliminate Flu.”

    Discover, Jan./Feb. 2011, p. 37.

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    Base your answers to questions 65 through 68 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Bald Eagle Facts

    • Bald eagles eat primarily fish, carrion (dead animals), smaller birds, and rodents. Their most important non-carrion food is fish, which they catch by swooping down and grabbing fish that are near the surface of the water.

    • The number of nesting pairs in the lower 48 United States increased from fewer than 450 in the early 1960s to more than 4,500 adult bald eagle nesting pairs in the 1990s. Today, there are an estimated 9,789 nesting pairs of bald eagles.

    • Bald eagles are found in large numbers in certain areas during the winter (known as roosts). These winter roosts are located in areas where prey are plentiful. Winter roosts are protected under federal law, and managed with a buffer zone to reduce human disturbance. As winter ends, the eagles return to their summer nesting/hunting areas.

    Bald Eagle Research

    In the winter of 2009, volunteers from an Audubon group conducted a survey of roosting bald eagles at four locations in an area in the lower Hudson River Valley. The data below show the average number of eagles sighted and the number of visits made by the volunteers each month. Among the other data collected were percent ice cover and percent cloud cover on the surface of the water. The eagles fly freely between these four sites, depending on a variety of conditions.

    Some of the data are shown in the table below.

    ecology, organization of ecosystems  fig: lenv82016-exam_g20.png

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    Base your answers to questions 69 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Coral Reef Ecosystems

    There are many ecological interactions that maintain the biodiversity present in coral reefs. In addition to coral, microscopic algae, seaweed, sea grasses, sponges and worms, and a variety of fish are among the organisms that live in reef ecosystems. Ocean currents often link different reef systems and move organisms from one reef area to another. This movement is a factor in repopulating a reef that has been damaged by environmental changes.

    One environmental change involves an increased growth of seaweed. When the population of seaweed increases, the reef shifts from a coral-dominated ecosystem to a seaweed-dominated ecosystem. This change disrupts the relationships between the organisms that live there.

    Studies have shown that, as the density of seaweed in a reef area increases, the number of fish that eat the seaweed in that area decreases. This may be due to the presence of more predators, or the taste of the more mature plants. The fish move to areas where there is less seaweed growth. As this trend continues, the reef areas are taken over by the seaweed. Once this happens, it is very hard to remove the seaweed and restore the reef to a healthy ecosystem.

    In addition to this problem, temperature changes are threatening the ocean currents that connect the reef systems. A change in the currents would reduce the movement of fish larvae from one area to another. This contributes to the seaweed problem.

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    Base your answers to questions 73 and 74 on the diagram below, which represents a process that occurs in living cells, and on your knowledge of biology.

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv82016-exam_g21.png

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    Base your answers to questions 75 through 77 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    labs, lab, the beaks of finches fig: lenv82016-exam_g22.png

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    Base your answer to question 78 on the table below and on your knowledge of biology. The table shows which of four enzymes are present in three related plant species.

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv82016-exam_g24.png

    The tree diagrams below show two possible evolutionary relationships between the three species.

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv82016-exam_g23.png

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    Base your answers to questions 79 and 80 on the diagram below, which represents the shrinking of a cell in response to an increase in the concentration of a substance outside of the cell.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv82016-exam_g25.png

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    Base your answers to questions 82 and 83 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents three sections of a cell membrane showing three different methods involved in the transport of various molecules across the membrane.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv82016-exam_g26.png

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