Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Regents Test, Full Exam Practice Online: living environment January 2017

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    Base your answers to questions 36 through 38 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a plant leaf cell and two different molecules used in the process of glucose synthesis.

    organization and patterns in Life, cell energetics, cellular respiration and APT fig: lenv12017-exam_g9.png

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    Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge of biology.

    In recent years, biologists have noticed that honeybees responsible for pollinating food crops across the United States are dying at an alarming rate. Farmers, economists, and biologists are very worried about the impact that the loss of honeybees might have on the food supply.

    labs, lab, appendix A, laboratory check list fig: lenv12017-exam_g11.png

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    Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a cell.

    organization and patterns in Life, cell structure and functions fig: lenv12017-exam_g12.png

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    Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a byproduct of cellular metabolism, is broken down by the enzyme catalase which is produced by nearly all organisms. When catalase is added to hydrogen peroxide, a reaction occurs that produces bubbles of oxygen gas (O2) and water (H2O).

    2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2

    The laboratory setup represented below was used to investigate the effect of pH on the breakdown of H2O2. Five setups were made with H2O2 solutions, each at a different pH level.

    Catalase was added to the solution in the first setup and the reaction proceeded for one minute and the amount of gas produced by the reaction was recorded on the data table. This exact procedure was repeated with the other four setups containing different H2O2 solutions.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv12017-exam_g13.png

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv12017-exam_g14.png

    Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a bar graph on the grid provided, following the directions below.

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    Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Mutations cause many disorders in humans. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disorder that can be passed on from generation to generation. Skin cancer is a disorder that sometimes originates in skin cells as a result of overexposure to the Sun.

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    Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the information and table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Prey selection in a species of California garter snake depends upon where the snake lives. Snakes living inland feed on frogs, leeches, and fish while coastal snakes have added banana slugs to their diet. Banana slugs are found only in coastal areas. Researchers performed an experiment to determine what prey newly born snakes preferred. The table below summarizes the findings.

    evolution, new species formation and evolution fig: lenv12017-exam_g16.png

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    Base your answer to question 53-54 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Both food chains and food webs can be used to illustrate relationships between organisms in an ecosystem.

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    Base your answer to question 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A student measured oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration levels in an aquatic ecosystem during a 24 hour period. The data are represented in the graph below.

    organization and patterns in Life, cell energetics, origin of energy and photosynthesis, organization and patterns in Life, cell energetics, cellular respiration and APT fig: lenv12017-exam_g17.png

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    Base your answer to question 56-58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Super-Size It?

    The American Academy of Pediatrics has noted an increase in the population of children with disorders that are usually associated with older adults, such as diabetes. Observers of American culture point to the trend to “super-size” food servings as a possible cause. Larger servings might encourage children of today to eat more fats and sugars than children ate a generation ago.

    In an attempt to determine if there is a relationship between diet and the development of diabetes in children, a study was done which surveyed a group of children regarding their eating habits and whether or not they were diabetic. When the survey results were collected, the data were used to organize the children into two groups based on their responses, and then the data were analyzed.

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    Base your answer to question 59 on the expression below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Think globally, act locally!

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    Base your answer to question 60 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Increased food production is essential to feed the growing human population. Some experts suggest that technology will be the answer. One application of technology is to clone a single plant to produce large numbers of it to grow as a single crop.

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    Base your answers to questions 61 through 64 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Green Algae Could Help Clean up Radioactive Nuclear Waste

    Recent studies have shown that the uses of green algae are boundless. First, scientists at R.I.T. used algae to synthesize biofuel, and recently scientists at Northwestern University and Argonne National have found that freshwater algae can remove strontium 90 from radioactive wastewater. These developments can significantly aid the future effort to clean up radioactive waste at the Fukushima Daichi Plant [a nuclear power plant in Japan]. Scientists discovered that the process begins when the green algae first absorb strontium, calcium and barium from water. The strontium and barium form crystals inside each algae cell. The crystals remain inside the cells, but the algae filters out and excretes calcium and other minerals that may be present. The strontium is then isolated, and thus able to be treated.

    Researchers are still figuring the best way to harness the algae’s capabilities. Since algae doesn’t differentiate between radioactive and inactive strontium (they are chemically identical), it is not known how the algae would hold up in a highly radioactive environment. But the good news is that they have been able to manipulate the algae’s process to be more strontium-selective, thus removing as much as possible.…

    Source: http://inhabitat.com/green-algae-could-help-clean-up-radioactive-nuclear-waste/algae-ed01/

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    Base your answers to questions 65 through 67 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Gray Wolves in the Rocky Mountains

    Reintroduction of gray wolves in the northern Rocky Mountains has increased the ecological health of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. When all wolves in Yellowstone National Park were killed in 1920, elk soon ate trees and shrubs down to short stubs. Now that wolves are reducing elk numbers, many aspens and willow trees are taller and fuller and birds are returning to the trees to nest. The beaver population has grown from one colony to 12 colonies in 13 years. Spreading these benefits across the Rocky Mountain region would require increasing the present wolf population of 1,770 to 17,000.

    In September 2012, wolves lost federal protection in Wyoming. In 2014, Wyoming closed its hunting season after meeting its quota of 26 wolves around Yellowstone and Grand Teton parks. The sizes of traps to catch wolves have been regulated to reduce the chance of trapping endangered species such as lynx and wolverines and the hunting season was shortened. Some ecologists wonder if removing the wolves from federal protection and allowing them to be hunted is a good ecological decision.

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    Base your answers to questions 68 and 69 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Some viruses can enter cells by first attaching to the cell membrane. The flu virus targets and attaches to the cells of the nose and mouth. The hepatitis virus targets only specific cells of the liver.

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    Base your answers to questions 70 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy

    Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with some severe human diseases and are inherited through the cytoplasm in the egg cell. These diseases vary, but often affect organs and tissues with the highest energy requirements, including the brain, heart, muscle, pancreas, and kidney.

    Scientists have successfully used mitochondrial replacement therapy with monkeys. Scientists are considering using this technique to reduce the incidence of mitochondrial disease in children. The proposed treatment would involve removing the nucleus from an egg donated by a healthy woman and replacing it with an egg nucleus from a patient (mother) with mitochondrial disease. This would place the patient’s egg nucleus into the cytoplasm of the donor’s egg containing healthy mitochondria. The egg is then fertilized with the father’s sperm externally using in vitro fertilization (IVF) to produce a zygote. The zygote is cultured for a few days to produce an embryo.

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    Base your answers to questions 76 through 78 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Seriously, We’re Poisonous: Coloration Is An Honest Signal

    Of Toxicity In Poison Frogs

    The conspicuous [noticeable] colors of poisonous frogs serve as a warning to predators: Don’t eat me; I’m toxic. And a new study shows that in the case of at least one frog species, they aren’t bluffing–the more conspicuous the color, the more poisonous the frog. Researchers Martine Maan (University of Groningen, the Netherlands) and Molly Cummings (University of Texas) studied strawberry poison dart frogs, which are native to Panama and come in more than a dozen different color patterns that vary from region to region.…

    …Maan and Cummings tested the toxicity levels of 10 differently colored frog populations. Then using known properties of birds’ visual systems, the researchers estimated how each color pattern would look to a bird, an important frog predator. The results show that frogs with more conspicuous color patterns–as seen by birds–tended to be more toxic. The findings suggest that “birds can predict the toxicity of frogs by looking at their colors, possibly better than the frogs can themselves,” Maan said.…

    Source: http://www.ineffableisland.com/2012/01/seriously-were-poisonous-coloration-is.html

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    Base your answers to questions 80 and 81 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    An athlete bought a sport gel food and wanted to test it to see if it contained fats, starches, and glucose. The tests that the student used are shown in the table below.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv12017-exam_g19.png

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    Base your answers to questions 82 through 84 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Students in a high school biology class conducted an investigation on pulse rates. The thirty students performed three different activities and determined their pulse rates. Each activity was done three times. The average is shown in the graph below.

    labs, lab, making connections fig: lenv12017-exam_g21.png

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