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For a human zygote to become an embryo, it must undergo*
Many homeowners and businesses are installing solar electric systems. Greater use of solar electric systems benefits the environment because it*
A cell in the leaf of a corn plant contains more chloroplasts than a cell in the stem of a corn plant. Based on this observation, it can be inferred that, when compared to the cell in the stem, the cell in the leaf*
When the human body is responding to stress, the hormone adrenaline is released. A short time later, the body returns to normal. This is an example of how a human*
A direct indication that the white blood cells of the body are functioning would be*
A fully functioning enzyme molecule is arranged in a complex three-dimensional shape. This shape determines the*
A student received a flu shot in the fall. During the flu season, the student caught a cold. The most likely reason the vaccine he received did not prevent the cold was that*
In August 2010, the Asian clam was discovered in Lake George. It is not native to that area. A single clam can reproduce and release hundreds of offspring in a day. Fish and crayfish eat the clams but cannot keep pace with the rate at which the clams reproduce. The introduction of the Asian clam into Lake George is*
Like humans, animals including dogs and cats get goose bumps. On a cold day, these goose bumps cause their coats to expand creating a layer of insulation. If the animal is scared, the coat will also expand making the animal look larger to predators. These responses serve as examples of*
Which factor is a major cause of the changes that occur during puberty, the years when the rate of human physical growth increases and reproductive maturity occurs?*
Which statement best describes how a new human trait develops and can be passed on to future generations?*
Survival of at least a few members of a population after a major environmental change is most dependent on*
A characteristic common to both diffusion and active transport is that*
The theory of evolution states that*
Scientists in Brazil have developed specific fertilizers and special breeds of soybeans and corn so crops can grow on large areas of tropical lands. This is valuable because farmers can help to feed the growing human population and strengthen the economy. However, trade-offs must be considered because farming on tropical lands can also*
The photograph below shows two color variations of Himalayan rabbits. In the winter, the rabbits resemble the one on the left. In the summer, the rabbits resemble the one on the right.
The changes in fur color are most likely due to*
The diagram represents a process used to modify bacterial cells.
In the diagram, arrows labeled X and Y represent the use of*
The diagram below represents the changes over time in an area.
Which example is not a natural process that could return a hardwood forest to the grass stage once again?*
The Mississippi River Delta wetlands ecosystem is home to a large number of fish, birds, and other aquatic organisms. During the last century, this ecosystem has seen a decrease in wetland areas and species diversity due to land development, agriculture, and flooding. Conservation groups have been working to reconnect the Mississippi River with its flood plain and restore lost wetlands. One result of restoring wetland areas in this ecosystem would be*
The diagram below represents a form of cellular reproduction.
As a result of this process, offspring 1 and offspring 2 will have*
The instructions for the genetic traits of an organism are directly determined by the*
Which statement best describes some protein molecules in a cell?*
Rafflesia arnoldii is a bright red and yellow flowering plant that has no leaves, roots, or stems. Rafflesia do not carry out photosynthesis. They take nutrients from the cells of grapevines. Rafflesia arnoldii is an example of a*
Female hammerhead sharks sometimes produce offspring by a type of asexual reproduction. These offspring*
A tomato gene, known as the SIKLUH gene, has recently been discovered. The gene leads to the production of larger tomatoes. The gene affects fruit size by increasing cell layers and promoting extra cell divisions. In order to produce large fruit in other commercial plant species, scientists might*
During the last century, human impacts on our planet have led to an increasing and alarming loss of biodiversity in rainforest ecosystems. Scientists estimate that current extinction rates exceed those of some prehistoric mass extinctions. This loss of biodiversity also means loss of genetic diversity and loss of ecosystems. What could be done to minimize this loss of biodiversity?*
Molecules in a certain medication attach to receptors on nerve cells. This prevents the normal chemical signal from binding to the receptor. One immediate result of taking this medication might be a disruption in the ability of*
The chart below contains information about some structures found in single-celled organisms
The information in this chart best illustrates the biological concept that*
The diagram below represents a process that occurs in human systems.
This process is known as*
The diagram below represents levels of glucose and insulin found within the bloodstream of a healthy person throughout the course of the day.
The increase in insulin levels following an increase in glucose levels in the blood can best be explained by*
The number of white-tailed deer in certain areas of Long Island, NY has increased significantly. Homeowners and farmers have put up tall fencing to protect their gardens and crops from the deer. One reason why the white tailed-deer might have increased significantly in certain areas of Long Island is*
Researchers have discovered a chemical that sterilizes soil by killing all of the bacteria that are normally present. If this chemical were released in a forest ecosystem, the most likely result would be that*
In order to be accepted, a scientific theory must be*
Anoles are a group of lizards consisting of approximately 400 species. A scientist studying them on an island observed two species that live in different habitats and display different behaviors. His observations are listed in the table below.
Based on the scientist’s observations, which state- ment best describes these two species of anoles?*
In an appropriately designed experiment, a scientist is able to test the effect of*
Base your answers to questions 36 through 38 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a plant leaf cell and two different molecules used in the process of glucose synthesis.
Molecules 1 and 2 are most likely*
Molecules 1 and 2 enter the cell and glucose leaves the cell through the process of*
Which statement best describes a function of glucose in plant cells?*
Students collected data about the capacities of their lungs by inflating balloons with a single breath. They measured the circumference of the balloons in centimeters. Each student completed three trials and calculated the average.
Which student miscalculated her average?*
Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
In recent years, biologists have noticed that honeybees responsible for pollinating food crops across the United States are dying at an alarming rate. Farmers, economists, and biologists are very worried about the impact that the loss of honeybees might have on the food supply.
Based on this information and the graph provided, which crops are most at risk if honeybees continue to decline?*
Peach blossom pollinations could be at risk if there is a total loss of honeybee populations in areas where peaches are grown. Which action would be most likely to help peach growers stay in business and be able to produce good-sized crops of peaches?*
Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a cell.
Which structure is responsible for the passage of materials into and out of the cell?*
Which structure is responsible for the synthesis of ATP?*
Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a byproduct of cellular metabolism, is broken down by the enzyme catalase which is produced by nearly all organisms. When catalase is added to hydrogen peroxide, a reaction occurs that produces bubbles of oxygen gas (O2) and water (H2O).
2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2
The laboratory setup represented below was used to investigate the effect of pH on the breakdown of H2O2. Five setups were made with H2O2 solutions, each at a different pH level.
Catalase was added to the solution in the first setup and the reaction proceeded for one minute and the amount of gas produced by the reaction was recorded on the data table. This exact procedure was repeated with the other four setups containing different H2O2 solutions.
Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a bar graph on the grid provided, following the directions below.
Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on the axis labeled “Amount of Gas Collected in One Minute (mL).” *
Construct vertical bars to represent the data. Shade in each bar. 
This investigation was performed again with identical conditions except with a hydrogen peroxide solution at pH 8. Predict the number of mL of gas that was collected in one minute. 
Based on the investigation, the student should conclude that enzymes*
Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Mutations cause many disorders in humans. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disorder that can be passed on from generation to generation. Skin cancer is a disorder that sometimes originates in skin cells as a result of overexposure to the Sun.
Explain why some disorders, such as CF, can be passed on from generation to generation, whereas some other disorders, such as skin cancer, cannot. *
Which statement best explains the formation of the mutations that cause both cystic fibrosis and skin cancer?*
Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the information and table below and on your knowledge of biology.
Prey selection in a species of California garter snake depends upon where the snake lives. Snakes living inland feed on frogs, leeches, and fish while coastal snakes have added banana slugs to their diet. Banana slugs are found only in coastal areas. Researchers performed an experiment to determine what prey newly born snakes preferred. The table below summarizes the findings.
Which inference best explains these differences?*
State how the feeding habits of this population of inland snakes would most likely change over many generations if they were relocated to a coastal region where frogs, leeches, and fish were rare. *
Estrogen is one of the hormones produced by human females. Identify one organ that produces estrogen and state one specific function of estrogen in a human female. 
Base your answer to question 53-54 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Both food chains and food webs can be used to illustrate relationships between organisms in an ecosystem.
Discuss these methods of representing relationships. In your answer, be sure to:
• state one similarity in the way relationships between organisms are shown in food chains and food webs 
• explain why using a food chain is more limiting than using a food web to show relationships between organisms in an ecosystem *
Base your answer to question 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
A student measured oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration levels in an aquatic ecosystem during a 24 hour period. The data are represented in the graph below.
Identify two biological processes that are responsible for the production of varying amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen within the aquatic ecosystem. 
Processes: ____________________________________ and ____________________________________*
Base your answer to question 56-58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The American Academy of Pediatrics has noted an increase in the population of children with disorders that are usually associated with older adults, such as diabetes. Observers of American culture point to the trend to “super-size” food servings as a possible cause. Larger servings might encourage children of today to eat more fats and sugars than children ate a generation ago.
In an attempt to determine if there is a relationship between diet and the development of diabetes in children, a study was done which surveyed a group of children regarding their eating habits and whether or not they were diabetic. When the survey results were collected, the data were used to organize the children into two groups based on their responses, and then the data were analyzed.
Discuss this investigation. In your answer, be sure to:
• state the hypothesis being tested in this investigation 
• identify one survey response that was most likely used for organizing the children into two groups 
• state what survey results would support the hypothesis stated above *
Base your answer to question 59 on the expression below and on your knowledge of biology.
Think globally, act locally!
This expression has been applied to many ecological problems, such as global warming [global climate change], and air pollution. Choose one of these ecological problems and write the name of the problem on your answer sheet. For the problem chosen, state one specific “local action” that could be taken. 
Base your answer to question 60 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Increased food production is essential to feed the growing human population. Some experts suggest that technology will be the answer. One application of technology is to clone a single plant to produce large numbers of it to grow as a single crop.
Explain how using cloning to produce a single crop could actually lead to a loss of the entire crop. *
Base your answers to questions 61 through 64 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Green Algae Could Help Clean up Radioactive Nuclear Waste
Recent studies have shown that the uses of green algae are boundless. First, scientists at R.I.T. used algae to synthesize biofuel, and recently scientists at Northwestern University and Argonne National have found that freshwater algae can remove strontium 90 from radioactive wastewater. These developments can significantly aid the future effort to clean up radioactive waste at the Fukushima Daichi Plant [a nuclear power plant in Japan]. Scientists discovered that the process begins when the green algae first absorb strontium, calcium and barium from water. The strontium and barium form crystals inside each algae cell. The crystals remain inside the cells, but the algae filters out and excretes calcium and other minerals that may be present. The strontium is then isolated, and thus able to be treated.
Researchers are still figuring the best way to harness the algae’s capabilities. Since algae doesn’t differentiate between radioactive and inactive strontium (they are chemically identical), it is not known how the algae would hold up in a highly radioactive environment. But the good news is that they have been able to manipulate the algae’s process to be more strontium-selective, thus removing as much as possible.…
Biofuels are produced from resources that can be grown, such as algae. Explain one specific benefit of using biofuels in place of the fossil fuels in wide use today. *
State one specific way that radioactive wastes from nuclear fuels can be harmful to humans. *
State one way the scientists may “have been able to manipulate the algae’s process to be more strontium-selective.” *
These algae are adapted to live in fresh water. State one way their cells would likely be affected if the scientists tried to use them in a saltwater environment. *
Base your answers to questions 65 through 67 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Gray Wolves in the Rocky Mountains
Reintroduction of gray wolves in the northern Rocky Mountains has increased the ecological health of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. When all wolves in Yellowstone National Park were killed in 1920, elk soon ate trees and shrubs down to short stubs. Now that wolves are reducing elk numbers, many aspens and willow trees are taller and fuller and birds are returning to the trees to nest. The beaver population has grown from one colony to 12 colonies in 13 years. Spreading these benefits across the Rocky Mountain region would require increasing the present wolf population of 1,770 to 17,000.
In September 2012, wolves lost federal protection in Wyoming. In 2014, Wyoming closed its hunting season after meeting its quota of 26 wolves around Yellowstone and Grand Teton parks. The sizes of traps to catch wolves have been regulated to reduce the chance of trapping endangered species such as lynx and wolverines and the hunting season was shortened. Some ecologists wonder if removing the wolves from federal protection and allowing them to be hunted is a good ecological decision.
Explain how increasing the wolf population caused an increase in birds and beavers. *
Explain why some ecologists are concerned about removing wolves from federal protection. *
In the space below, construct a food chain using three organisms identified in the above passage. *
Base your answers to questions 68 and 69 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Some viruses can enter cells by first attaching to the cell membrane. The flu virus targets and attaches to the cells of the nose and mouth. The hepatitis virus targets only specific cells of the liver.
State one way the immune system reacts when one of these viruses enters the body. *
Most people who get vaccinated develop immunity to the disease. Explain why the contents of the vaccine usually do not cause people to get sick. *
Base your answers to questions 70 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy
Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with some severe human diseases and are inherited through the cytoplasm in the egg cell. These diseases vary, but often affect organs and tissues with the highest energy requirements, including the brain, heart, muscle, pancreas, and kidney.
Scientists have successfully used mitochondrial replacement therapy with monkeys. Scientists are considering using this technique to reduce the incidence of mitochondrial disease in children. The proposed treatment would involve removing the nucleus from an egg donated by a healthy woman and replacing it with an egg nucleus from a patient (mother) with mitochondrial disease. This would place the patient’s egg nucleus into the cytoplasm of the donor’s egg containing healthy mitochondria. The egg is then fertilized with the father’s sperm externally using in vitro fertilization (IVF) to produce a zygote. The zygote is cultured for a few days to produce an embryo.
Explain what must be done with the embryo after in vitro fertilization (IVF) has been completed so the embryo can complete development. *
Explain why the scientists used the cytoplasm from the donor’s egg. *
State one reason why muscle tissues are likely to be affected by mitochondrial diseases. *
A student collected data from an experiment on muscle fatigue. In order to interpret these data, the student should*
Paper chromatography is a method used in*
The diagram below represents the relationship between beak structure and food in several species of finches found on the Galapagos Islands.
The different beak structures observed in the diagram are evidence of*
Base your answers to questions 76 through 78 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Seriously, We’re Poisonous: Coloration Is An Honest Signal
Of Toxicity In Poison Frogs
The conspicuous [noticeable] colors of poisonous frogs serve as a warning to predators: Don’t eat me; I’m toxic. And a new study shows that in the case of at least one frog species, they aren’t bluffing–the more conspicuous the color, the more poisonous the frog. Researchers Martine Maan (University of Groningen, the Netherlands) and Molly Cummings (University of Texas) studied strawberry poison dart frogs, which are native to Panama and come in more than a dozen different color patterns that vary from region to region.…
…Maan and Cummings tested the toxicity levels of 10 differently colored frog populations. Then using known properties of birds’ visual systems, the researchers estimated how each color pattern would look to a bird, an important frog predator. The results show that frogs with more conspicuous color patterns–as seen by birds–tended to be more toxic. The findings suggest that “birds can predict the toxicity of frogs by looking at their colors, possibly better than the frogs can themselves,” Maan said.…
If a sudden genetic mutation in the birds that feed on these frogs made them able to consume any amount of the poison with no harm to them, it is most likely that*
Researcher Austin Penner of the University of Alberta has noted that climate change and deforestation in the habitat of the strawberry poison dart frog could have “drastic effects” as the habitat required for the development of the tadpoles [young] of these frogs is extremely specific. Explain why it is important to protect these poisonous frog species and the habitat that supports them. *
Frogs come in “more than a dozen different color patterns.” State one method the scientists could have used to determine that they are all the same species. *
Pulse rate is measured in beats per minute (bpm). Individual A has a resting pulse rate of 64 bpm. Individual B has a resting pulse rate of 82 bpm. Identify two reasons why the pulse rates of both of these individuals could be considered “normal.” 
Base your answers to questions 80 and 81 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
An athlete bought a sport gel food and wanted to test it to see if it contained fats, starches, and glucose. The tests that the student used are shown in the table below.
The athlete received the following results from the tests.
Identify the contents of the sports gel. *
If a starch-digesting enzyme were added to a sports gel that lists starch as an ingredient, which substance would increase in concentration?*
Base your answers to questions 82 through 84 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Students in a high school biology class conducted an investigation on pulse rates. The thirty students performed three different activities and determined their pulse rates. Each activity was done three times. The average is shown in the graph below.
The students want to improve the validity of their conclusion. The best way to accomplish this is to*
Some biology students concluded that classmates over 6 feet tall always have higher pulse rates than shorter classmates. Does the information from the investigation support this conclusion? Support your answer. *
State the relationship between intensity of physical activity and pulse rate. *
Identify one adaptation, other than beak size and shape, a finch species might possess and state how that would aid in its survival. *