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A fruit fly is classified as a consumer rather than as a producer because it is unable to*
Which change is an example of maintaining dynamic equilibrium?*
Organisms contain compounds such as proteins, starches, and fats. The chemical bonds in these compounds can be a source of*
Phosphorus is necessary for the growth of healthy plants. Scientists are developing plants that can grow in phosphorus-poor soil. Some of these new varieties, produced in a lab, make extra copies of a protein that helps them obtain more phosphorus from the soil. The process being used to develop these new varieties is most likely*
Which life function is not necessary for an individual organism to stay alive?*
Lobsters prey on sea hares, which are marine animals. The lobsters find their prey through a sense of smell. The sea hares defend themselves by squirting ink at the lobster, as shown in the photo below. The ink sticks to the lobster, interfering with its sense of smell.
The most likely reason the sea hare can escape is because the sea hare ink*
Which statement is an accurate description of genes?*
The bobolink is a small blackbird that nests in fields of tall grass. It breeds in the summer across much of southern Canada and the northern United States. It migrates long distances, wintering in southern South America. The numbers of these birds are declining due to disruption of the areas where they live.
In order to save these birds from extinction, the best course of action would be to*
A child with cystic fibrosis has an altered protein in his cells that stops chloride ions from leaving the cells. This protein most likely affects the functioning of*
Which row in the chart below shows a direct relationship that can exist between two living organisms?
Scientists have studied the return of plant life on Mount St. Helens ever since the volcano erupted in 1980. Wildflowers began colonizing the area, followed by shrubs and small trees. Scientists predict that it will likely take hundreds of years before the area returns to a forest dominated by fir and hemlock trees. These changes are an example of*
The most likely result of completely removing carbon dioxide from the environment of a plant is that sugar production will*
Before a new shopping center can be built on previously undeveloped land, the builders must submit a proposal to the local government for approval. Which statement identifies an environmental concern associated with the development of the shopping center?*
Homeowners have been encouraged to learn how to identify invasive plants and to remove them if they find them. The most likely reason for removing invasive plants is to*
Which row in the chart below correctly pairs a human activity with its impact on the environment?
The diagram below represents some steps in a procedure used in the field of biotechnology.
This bacterial cell can now be used to produce*
The graph below represents the number of brown and green beetles collected in a particular ecosystem.
The change observed in the number of green and brown beetles in the population is most likely due to*
A reproductive system is represented in the diagram below.
Which structure is correctly paired with its reproductive function?*
For centuries, humans have used resources from coastal areas and open ocean waters. An example of an activity that would promote the conservation of coastal areas and ocean resources is*
Which activity would eventually result in a stable ecosystem?*
Some states require shoppers to pay a deposit on certain beverage containers made of plastic and glass. When shoppers return the containers, their deposits are returned to them. How is this system intended to help the environment?*
The diagram below represents a food web.
Which level contains organisms that carry out autotrophic nutrition?*
Mad cow disease is a fatal disease that destroys brain tissue. Researchers have found that a prion protein, which is an abnormally constructed molecule, is responsible. Which statement best describes the characteristics a protein must have to function correctly?*
The diagram below represents the results of the net movement of a specific kind of molecule across a living cell membrane.
The movement of molecules from side A to side B is an example of the process of*
Several companies now offer DNA “banking services,” where DNA is extracted from a pet and is stored so that a “replacement pet” might be produced using cloning techniques when the original pet dies. Which statement best explains why the replacement pets that are produced in this way might not look or act like the original?*
It is recommended that people avoid excessive use of tanning beds. Exposure to the radiation emitted by tanning beds can cause skin cancer. This cancer is the direct result of a*
The diagram below represents a developing fetus in a human.
What would most likely happen if structure X were damaged in the early stages of pregnancy?*
The reproductive structure in a female mammal that produces sex cells is the*
Fungi are decomposers that play an important role in the maintenance of an ecosystem. The role of fungi is important because they*
In 2011 and 2012, scientists working on the Banana River in Florida recorded a dramatic increase in the number of manatee deaths. Over the past 50 years, this area has also seen the human population increase by more than 500,000 people. It is believed that pollution from numerous sewage tanks leaked into the water, eliminating the manatees’ food source, replacing it with an alga that is toxic to the manatee. This is an example of*
A student performed an experiment to see if water temperature affects the level of activity in aquatic snails. The student set up four tanks with fi ve snails in each tank. All four of the setups were identical in every way, except for the temperature of the water. In order to make the conclusions more valid, the student could*
The following events occur during sexual reproduction:
A. mitosis B. meiosis C. fertilization D. birth
Which sequence represents the correct order of these events during sexual reproduction?*
A broad body of evidence, subject to revisions, supported by different kinds of scientific investi- gations and often involving the contributions of scientists from different disciplines is necessary to develop*
The diagrams below represent portions of two genes that code for leaf structure in the same species of clover. Gene 1 was taken from the cells of a clover plant with 3 leaves and gene 2 was taken from the cells of a clover plant with 4 leaves.
The clover plant having gene 2 (4 leaves) was most likely the result of*
Increased concern over the number of heat- related illnesses among football players has led to a possible change in uniform design. Shoulder pads were designed that constantly blew cool, dry air underneath the shoulder pads. Tests showed that the use of the device during rest and recovery periods resulted in a reduction of body temperature and heart rate. This new device would help the athlete to*
Base your answers to questions 36 and 37 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
A student wanted to investigate the effect of light on the rate of ripening of tomatoes. She set up four pots of the same size with identical amounts of soil, water, and type of tomato plants. Each plant was exposed to a different intensity of light as shown in the table below.
To report the final results, which label would be most appropriate for the third column of the data table?*
The independent variable in this experiment is the*
Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram illustrates activities taking place in the body of a human.
Vaccinations usually stimulate the body to produce more of*
Which structure normally stimulates an allergic response?*
Which population in the chart below has the best chance for survival in a rapidly changing environment?
The table below represents a segment of a DNA molecule found in a stomach cell, both before and after undergoing replication.
Which statement best describes a change that would most likely be observed in the cells formed as a result of this mitotic division?*
Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The setup below shows four test tubes. Tube 1 contains water only. Tube 2 contains a live snail. Tube 3 contains a live green water plant. Tube 4 contains both a live green water plant and a live snail.
In this setup, which tubes contain at least one organism carrying on cellular respiration?*
Which compound that directly provides energy in living cells is being produced in every tube where cellular respiration is occurring?*
Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information and data table below and on your knowl- edge of biology.
The concentration of a specific antibody in the blood of an individual was measured at various times over a period of 50 days. The results obtained are shown in the data table below.
Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid, following the directions below.
Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each labeled axis. *
Plot the data on the grid. Connect the points and surround each point with a small circle. 
State one reason for the change in antibody production during the first 10 days. *
The antibody level (in arb. units) of the individual on day 30 is closest to*
Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
If a Chihuahua with short hair has a hidden gene for long hair, it can produce both long-haired and short-haired puppies when bred to a Chihuahua with long hair.
A family decides that they want to produce Chihuahuas with long hair. Identify a procedure that could be used to make sure that the puppies all have long hair. *
A Chihuahua is born having a trait that is different from either of its parents. A possible explanation for the difference is that the Chihuahua puppy*
Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a technique used by scientists today to maintain the genetic makeup of an organism.
Which graph below best represents the DNA content found in each cell in each of the stages in the diagram above?
Describe one specific reason why scientists would want to maintain the genetic makeup of a particular plant. *
Base your answers to questions 52 and 53 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Breast Cancer Research
Most deaths that are a result of breast cancer occur because the cancer cells metastasize (spread) from the breast to other organs. As they metastasize, cancer cells travel through the bloodstream.
MicroRNA molecules are involved in both the movement and control of metastasized cells. One microRNA, known as miR-7, shuts down a protein that helps cancer cells travel through the blood.
Understanding how miR-7 interacts with cancer cells may lead to new treatments for certain types of cancer. Since certain levels of miR-7 expression can also stimulate the development of cancer cells, the use of miR-7 to treat cancer will have to be studied in more detail. Researchers are hoping that eventually levels of miR-7 will be used to diagnose, treat, and prevent the spread of cancer in an individual.
State one negative effect of using miR-7 as the only treatment for breast cancer. *
State one way cancer cells are different from normal body cells. *
Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
Each body cell contains the same genetic information, but can differ in appearance and size. The diagram below shows three different types of cells found in the human body.
Identify one similarity, other than the genetic information, that these body cells have. *
Explain why differences in these human body cells are a biological advantage. *
Base your answers to questions 56 through 58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Federal wildlife officials plan to dispatch armed bird specialists into forests of the Pacific Northwest starting this fall to shoot one species of owl to protect another that is threatened with extinction. …
…“If we don’t manage barred owls, the probability of recovering the spotted owls goes down significantly,” said Paul Henson, Oregon state supervisor for Fish and Wildlife. The agency’s preferred course of action calls for killing 3,603 barred owls in four study areas in Oregon, Washington and northern California over the next four years. …
…Mr. Henson said unless barred owls are brought under control, the spotted owl in coming decades might disappear from Washington’s northern Cascade Range and Oregon’s Coast Range, where the barred owl incursion [takeover] has been greatest.
The northern spotted owl was listed as a threatened species in 1990. Barred owls are bigger, more aggressive and less picky about food. Barred owls now cover the spotted owl’s range, in some places outnumbering them as much as 5-to-1.
Source: Associated Press, 7/26/13
Describe how the barred owl population is having a negative effect on the spotted owl population. *
Explain why it is important to protect the spotted owl from extinction. *
Certain groups oppose the plan to kill barred owls, in part because they feel it will not solve the problem. They recommend that the focus should be on protecting the habitat of the spotted owl. Describe the role that the habitat plays in the survival of an animal species such as the spotted owl. *
Base your answer to question 59 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The 1990 Federal Clean Air Act requires New York State to conduct an emissions test on most gasoline-powered automobiles in order to help reduce harmful emissions. Vehicles that fail this test must be repaired and pass inspection before they can be driven on the road. Some people did not support this legislation.
State one advantage and one disadvantage of automobile emission testing. 
Base your answers to questions 60 through 63 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
An enzyme was isolated from digestive juices taken from the small intestine. An experiment was set up to test the ability of the enzyme to break down protein. Two test tubes, labeled A and B, were placed in a hot water bath at 37°C, human body temperature.
Test tube A contained only protein and test tube B contained protein and the enzyme. The chart below shows the set-up.
After two hours, the contents of both test tubes were analyzed. Test tube A showed only the presence of protein. Test tube B showed the presence of the end products of protein digestion, indicating the enzyme had successfully broken down the protein.
Identify the end products of protein digestion that made up the contents of test tube B after the two hours. *
Explain the importance of temperature in the functioning of enzymes. *
State what the result would be if the same enzyme that was added to test tube B was added to a test tube containing starch. Support your answer. *
In the digestive system many large molecules, such as proteins, are broken down into much smaller molecules. State what happens to these smaller molecules following digestion. *
Base your answers to question 64-66 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Secondhand Smoke and Estrogen
A fertility researcher conducted a study of pregnant women. The researcher’s hypothesis was that the estrogen levels of pregnant women who were exposed to daily secondhand cigarette smoke would be higher than estrogen levels of pregnant women not exposed to daily secondhand smoke.
The researcher measured the estrogen levels of eight pregnant women each week throughout their pregnancy. Four of the women lived in houses with heavy smokers, the other four did not. The women’s ages varied from 19 to 42 years old. Six of the women were pregnant with girls, one was pregnant with a boy, and one was pregnant with twin boys. The research was submitted for peer review.
Analyze this experiment. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify one error in the researcher’s experimental design 
• identify one way, other than affecting estrogen levels, that secondhand smoke could affect a developing embryo 
• explain why the process of peer review is an important step in this research *
Base your answers to questions 67 through 69 on the information and passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
Snowy Owls Move to the South
Snowy owls are large white birds that normally inhabit the cold northern regions of Canada. Recently, scientists and birdwatchers have sighted the snowy owls much farther south than usual.
When snowy owls are in northern areas, they feed on lemmings (small rodents). When lemmings are not available, as in the areas further south, the owls will seek out mice or rabbits as their food source.
Several snowy owls migrated into an area represented by the food web below.
Identify one population of organisms shown in the food web, other than rabbits or mice, that would likely be affected by the introduction of the snowy owls and explain why their population would be affected. 
Identify one condition that might cause snowy owls to leave their usual habitat and move to another area. *
State which level, A, B, or C, contains the least total available energy. Support your answer. 
Base your answers to questions 70 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Pocket mice are small rodents that feed mainly at night and are preyed upon by owls, hawks, and snakes. Scientists studied pocket mice living on dark volcanic rock in both New Mexico and fifty miles away in Arizona. They recorded their data in the chart below.
State one possible hypothesis that would explain the differences in the observed data between the two locations. *
Dark fur color in pocket mice is the result of a mutation. Scientists analyzed the sequence of bases in the gene known to play a role in fur color and discovered that the mutation was identical in both the New Mexico and Arizona mouse populations. Explain how it is possible for these two different populations to have identical gene sequences for dark fur color. *
Explain what is meant by the statement: “While mutations are random, natural selection is not.” *
The diagram below represents evolutionary pathways of seven groups of organisms alive today.
Which two living species would be expected to have the most similar proteins?*
Scientists recently discovered that three different types of squid, a marine animal, previously thought to be three different species, were actually all members of one species. Their earlier ideas were based on using squid carcasses (dead bodies). The new, more accepted classification is most probably based on an analysis of*
The diagram below represents a laboratory experiment involving sucrose and water molecules in a cellophane bag which functions in the same way as dialysis tubing.
Which statement correctly explains the rise of liquid in the tube at the end of the experiment?*
Base your answers to questions 76 through 78 on the diagram below that shows variations in the beaks of fi nches in the Galapagos Islands and on your knowledge of biology.
from: Galapagos: A Natural History Guide
Which row correctly pairs a finch species with its primary nutritional role and bill type?
In certain years, the Galapagos plants produce many tube-shaped flowers rich in nectar. Identify the finch that is best adapted to feed on the nectar within those flowers. Support your answer. *
The number of small tree finches is increasing on an island inhabited by a large population of small ground fi nches. State one reason why the population of small ground finches has not been affected by the increasing number of small tree finches. *
Explain why glucose molecules can cross a cell membrane and starch molecules can not. *
Base your answers to questions 80 through 82 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Progressive Resistance Exercise
Progressive resistance exercise (PRE) is a method of increasing the ability of muscles to generate force. The principles of PRE for increasing force production in muscles have remained unchanged for almost 60 years. These principles are (1) to perform a small number of repetitions until fatigued, (2) to allow sufficient rest between exercises for recovery, and
(3) to increase the resistance as the ability to generate force increases. Traditionally, PRE has been used by young, healthy adults to improve athletic performance.
A student decided to incorporate PRE into his exercise program. He did not know how to determine when he had allowed sufficient rest between exercises for recovery. He hypothesized that waiting for his pulse to return to normal would probably be a good indication.
Explain why allowing his pulse rate to return to normal might be a good indication that he had waited long enough for recovery. *
Students wanted to try PRE to increase their ability to rapidly squeeze a clothespin. They thought if they could do this, they could challenge another class to a clothespin squeezing competition and win. Which steps should the students take to follow the principles of PRE?*
Students following the principles of PRE monitored their ability to lift weights. Which observation would indicate that their exercise program was successful?*
Using the axes on the graph below, sketch a line graph showing the changes in heart rate of a person who is walking slowly, then begins running, and then sits down to rest for a few minutes. 
Identify one waste product that is released during exercise. Explain how this waste product leaves the body. 
State one way scientists could use the banding patterns produced by gel electrophoresis. *