Log in to make full use of the services
Which organisms and set of characteristics are correctly paired?*
Humans have an effect on ecosystems when they use native grasslands or forested areas for farming or urban use. One negative effect of these changes on the ecosystem is that there will be*
The diagram below represents structures found in the female reproductive system.
If the areas labeled A were completely blocked on both sides, the most likely result would be that*
Scientists have studied oceanic plastic garbage “patches” around the world. These are areas that accumulate plastic garbage from coastal regions. Their environmental effect ranges from killing sea life to blocking sunlight from reaching photosynthetic organisms. Without a change in human plastic usage, new garbage patches will continue to form. Which human activity would most directly reduce the amount of plastic garbage that enters the ocean?*
Monarch butterflies migrate from the U.S. and Canada to Mexico every winter. Over the past 10 years, there has been a drastic decrease in the number of monarch butterflies. Scientists have estimated that the population may have decreased from about 1 billion to 35 million. Which action would not be considered a reason for the decline in monarch butterfly populations?*
Finches on the Galapagos Islands express a variety of traits. Variability in the offspring of these finches is a result of*
Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as pesticides, may reduce fertility in males by interfering with their ability to produce gametes. These toxins are most likely having an effect on the*
Which statement best describes an important process carried out by structure X?
Traditional lightbulbs are only 10% efficient. Ninety percent of the energy they use is converted to heat. Modern lightbulbs are much more efficient, but may cost three times as much as traditional lightbulbs. Consumers who switch to modern lightbulbs are most likely*
Many oak trees are cut down and removed from an oak-hickory forest. A likely result of the direct harvesting of the oak species would be the*
A sequence of events is represented in the diagram below.
Which statement best describes a result of this process?*
Which change is an example of a response to a stimulus?*
After feeding at the surface of the ocean during the day, many ocean organisms migrate to deeper waters. While there, they release ammonia in their urine. Many bacteria use the nitrogen from the ammonia as they make amino acids, which eventually end up in food chains on both land and water. These amino acids may even be used in humans. Which statement best explains these observations?*
Which statement describes an event that would most severely disrupt the process of ecological succession in an area?*
The processes of diffusion and active transport are both used to*
Botulinum toxin is a substance that can cause paralysis in humans. The effects of the toxin are due to the blocking of a signaling molecule that is necessary for communication between nerve cells. The toxin most likely interferes with the normal functioning of a*
The bar graph below shows the number of species in four pond ecosystems.
Based on this information, which ecosystem is likely to be the most stable?*
The diagram below represents a marine food web.
The organisms represented by X are*
When rain forests are cut down, there is a*
Scientists who study rock formations in caves describe some of the formations as “living rock” because, under certain conditions, they increase in size. Which statement would best dispute the claim that these rock formations are living?*
Carbon dioxide and oxygen are important resources in ecosystems and are*
Before they can pass from a parent cell to its offspring cells, the inherited instructions that a human cell carries must first be*
Eye color, hair color, and skin color often vary from person to person and even within a family. One explanation is that*
Organic compounds are used as building blocks for*
Scientists have developed the ability to manufacture hormones, such as human growth hormone, using bacteria. One benefit of this new technology is that*
Although all of the cells of a plant contain the same genetic material, root cells and leaf cells are not identical because they*
During cellular respiration, what is the direct source of the energy used in the cells of consumers in the ecosystem represented below?
Which dissolved substance do aquatic animals remove from their external environment for use in cellular respiration?*
The photographs below are of two Siamese cats.
The Siamese breed has a gene that controls fur color. The cat in the first photograph was kept indoors while the cat in the second photograph was kept outdoors. Which statement best explains the differences in fur color between these two cats?*
The diagram below represents a cell.
Which letter indicates the specific structure where most hereditary mutations occur?*
Base your answers to questions 31 through 33 on the information and graphs below, and on your knowledge of biology. The diagrams below show the number of fish in a lake and the average water temperature in the lake for the months of May through October.
During certain times of the year, bears feed heavily on a population of fish in a lake. At other times of the year, the bear population feeds primarily on fruits, berries, and insects.
During which month would the bears in the area have the most fish available?*
One of the best ways to represent the interdependence of all of the organisms in this ecosystem is*
Within the fish population, variations exist in color, size, gamete production, and swimming speed. A variation that would most likely be passed on to future generations of the species is*
Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the information below, and on your knowledge of biology.
Before conducting an experiment, two students gathered information about the effect of greenhouse gases on global warming. Student A found information in a newspaper article. Student B found information in several peer-reviewed scientific journals and on three websites.
Which statement most likely describes the reliability of the students’ information?*
After gathering the information, the students presented the information to their class. The class gave the students suggestions about how to continue with their experiment. How does this step benefit the investigation?*
A student wondered if butterflies would show any differences in their wing color if, as caterpillars, they were grown in the dark or grown in bright white light. Which statement would be a possible hypothesis for an experiment to test this idea?*
The chart below shows the number of differences in genetic material between individuals within the same species. Scientists can use this information to determine which populations demonstrate the greatest amount of genetic diversity.
According to the chart, which two species would be more likely to survive if their environmental conditions changed?*
Microbeads are tiny, smooth, plastic spheres found in common household products such as facial soap. These beads, measuring from 0.0004 to 1.24 mm, roughly the size of some fish eggs, are too small to be removed by water treatment systems. Thus, they end up in rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water. The accumulation of these microbeads is an environmental concern for aquatic biologists because microbeads*
Base your answers to questions 39 and 40 on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagrams represent some of the systems that make up the human body.
Which row in the chart below correctly identifies the main function of these systems?
A similarity between these systems is that they all*
Base your answer to question 41 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
In China, farmers switched from growing conventional cotton, which required spraying with insecticides 15 times each year, to a genetically modified cotton variety called Bt cotton. The Bt cotton produces a protein toxic to the insects that destroy the cotton crop. Since the switch to Bt cotton, the use of chemical insecticides has decreased by 60%.
An advantage of growing the genetically modified Bt cotton instead of conventional cotton is that growing Bt cotton could*
The diagram below represents events that occur during sexual reproduction.
The stages labeled A, B, and C are necessary to ensure that the offspring will inherit*
A company that produces paint is planning to build a small factory in a rural community. The factory would provide many needed jobs. Before the community agrees to allow the factory to be built, the community should*
Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the information, diagram, and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
The laboratory setup represented below was used to investigate the effect of light on aquatic plants. Equal amounts of a green water plant were placed in beakers with gas- collecting tubes. The beakers were placed in a temperature-controlled environment. The light source was placed at different distances from the beakers. After an hour, the amount of gas collected from the plants in each tube was measured and recorded in the data table.
Directions: Using the information given, construct a line graph on the grid following the directions below.
Provide an appropriate label for the y-axis, including units, on the line provided. *
Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each labeled axis. *
Plot the data on the grid, connect the points, and surround each point with a small circle. 
Which row in the chart below correctly identifies the variables in this experiment?
Identify the gas being produced by the plants. *
Base your answers to questions 49 through 51 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The Bionic Pancreas
Until recently, diabetics could rely only on regular blood sugar checks, medications, and low-carbohydrate diets in order to maintain their health.
Bioengineers at Boston University are working to create a bionic pancreas. The device includes a sensor implanted just beneath the skin that monitors blood sugar levels. It sends a wireless signal to a smartphone every five minutes. If the phone receives a signal that blood sugar is too low or too high, it then sends a different signal to a separate device also attached to the body. This device releases the appropriate hormone into the bloodstream to return blood sugar levels back to normal.
According to the passage, the bionic pancreas makes corrective actions that return blood sugar levels back to normal. This artificial device helps*
The corrective actions made by the bionic pancreas on a regular basis in response to changing blood sugar levels are similar to which natural biological process?*
The bionic pancreas sends a signal to a device to release hormones into the bloodstream to regulate blood sugar. Identify one hormone the device would most likely release. *
Many hormones are proteins used in cellular communication. Each hormone carries a specific message to specific target cells. State why each of these hormones is able to deliver a different message. *
Two different species occupy the same habitat. Identify one reason these two species might not compete. *
Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents the energy in kilocalories (kcal) available at different feeding levels in a food chain.
Complete the energy pyramid provided below by writing herbivore, plant, and carnivore in the correct locations. 
Explain why there is a different amount of energy represented at each level of this energy pyramid. *
Base your answers to question 56-58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The results of new research highlight interesting findings regarding reindeer and moose saliva. Both reindeer and moose feed on a type of grass called red fescue. Red fescue is usually dangerous to eat due to the presence of a fungus with which it has a mutually beneficial relationship. When the red fescue is eaten, the fungus produces a toxin that decreases blood flow in the legs of the moose and reindeer. This could result in the loss of their limbs.
Since many reindeer and moose successfully feed on red fescue, scientists wondered if their saliva gave them the ability to eat the grass without suffering from circulation problems. Scientists hypothesized that moose and reindeer saliva might detoxify the grass. To conduct their experiment, the researchers smeared reindeer and moose saliva on cut red fescue that contained the fungus. They learned that the saliva slowed the growth of this fungus and detoxified the grass. The reults suggest that some animal species have evolved the ability to fight back against a plant’s natural defenses.
Explain the benefit of the ability moose and reindeer have to eat red fescue grass. In your answer, be sure to:
• explain why red fescue plants with the fungus normally have an advantage over red fescue plants without the fungus 
• explain how the moose and reindeer saliva protects them from the harmful effects of the fungus 
• explain how moose and reindeer (two separate, but related, mammals) could possess the same adaptation that protects them from the toxin produced by the fungus *
Cancer of the ovary is not common, but when it occurs, the cancer can cause the ovary to malfunction. Identify one possible result of an ovary not performing its intended function in the body. *
Several students were diagnosed with strep throat. They were all given the same antibiotic and took it for the time specified. Three weeks later, after finishing all their antibiotic, all the students except one no longer had strep throat. State one likely reason why the one student was still infected with strep bacteria. *
Base your answers to questions 61 and 62 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Project Frozen Dumbo – Saving the Elephant Population Means Using Special Breeding
Over the last 10 years, 70 percent of Africa’s wild elephant population has been killed off. The main cause is ivory poaching, in which elephants are slaughtered for their valuable tusks. At the same time, efforts to breed captive zoo elephants have not been very successful.
Now there is some good news. At zoos in Austria and England, two baby elephants were born, using sperm from South African wild elephants. For the first time, elephant sperm gathered in the wild was frozen and given to zoos. Two female zoo elephants were artificially impregnated with the sperm and went on to deliver calves. …
Source: Saving the Elephant Population Means Using Special Breeding, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 8/21/14
State one reason why the use of sperm from wild elephants, rather than the use of sperm from elephants in zoos in England or Austria, would be more important to the long-term survival of elephants. *
Identify one likely reason, other than poaching and hunting, for the decline of the elephant population. *
Base your answers to questions 63 through 65 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Battling Cancer with T-cell Therapy
One reason that cancer is able to spread through tissues and organs is that cancer cells are actually the patient’s own cells. The immune system of the patient does not recognize these cancer cells as foreign and, therefore, does not reject and destroy them.
Over the past eight years, immunologists have been developing a treatment for B-cell leukemia that involves using genetically engineered T cells to recognize and destroy B cells, all of which carry a protein, CD19. CD19 is found on the surface of both healthy and cancerous B cells. B cells are immune system cells that produce antibodies.
The procedure used in this treatment is outlined below:
1. T cells are removed from the patient with B-cell leukemia.
2. The T cells are genetically engineered to recognize the CD19 protein.
3. The patient is injected with the engineered T cells, which attach to cells with CD19 and destroy them.
4. The engineered T cells destroy both cancerous and healthy B cells.
This procedure has been successful in several patients. Currently, studies are continuing with more B-cell leukemia patients. It is hoped that the studies will be expanded to include other types of cancer, and that this treatment will be available to treat a variety of cancers in the future.
Explain why these specific T cells can be used for B-cell leukemia treatment. *
Explain why a patient needs treatments of antibodies after being injected with these modified T cells. *
Explain why the engineered T cells taken from one cancer patient will not work as a cancer treatment if injected into another patient with B-cell leukemia. *
Base your answers to questions 66 through 68 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Hydrothermal Vent Communities
Scientists discovered a unique hydrothermal ecosystem on the sea floor at hot-water vents thousands of feet below the ocean surface. Organisms in these deep-sea regions have no access to sunlight, so they depend on the heat, methane, and high levels of sulfur-bearing minerals found in the heated fluids in which they live. Scientists were amazed to discover vent communities able to sustain vast amounts of life. The vent organisms depend on bacteria that can use the sulfur-bearing minerals to produce organic materials. These bacteria live on rock surfaces and as free-floating blobs. Some bacteria live within and provide nutrients for an unusual species of giant tubeworms that lacks a digestive system. Snails, shrimp, and clams are among the animals that feed directly on the bacteria. Crabs feed directly on other animals in the vent community.
Identify one abiotic factor that makes the hydrothermal vent ecosystem different from other ocean ecosystems. *
State the relationship that exists between the crabs and the other members of the vent community. *
Describe one way the bacteria of the hydrothermal vent community differ from plants in their ability to produce organic materials. *
Base your answers to questions 69 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Transgenic Atlantic salmon have been produced using DNA from other species of related fish. These genetically modified fish have an altered DNA “switch” that causes them to overproduce growth hormone. The transgenic Atlantic salmon grow to normal size, but they reach market size in half the time of conventional Atlantic salmon. As with most of the salmon consumed by people, the transgenic Atlantic salmon would be grown using aquatic farming methods. Scientists have expressed concern that transgenic fish can have undesirable effects on the natural environment. Fish growers would be expected to take steps to ensure that the transgenic salmon do not escape into the wild.
State one advantage genetic modification has over selective breeding when producing new varieties of animals or plants. *
State one reason the scientists altered the DNA “switch” of the Atlantic salmon to make them produce more growth hormone, rather than directly supplying the Atlantic salmon with more growth hormone. *
State one undesirable effect that escaped transgenic Atlantic salmon could have on the natural environment. *
State one benefit of raising the transgenic Atlantic salmon. *
During periods of vigorous physical activity, a person’s breathing and heart rates increase. This enables the cells of the body to perform more efficiently because it helps the cells to*
A step in a procedure used in the Diffusion Through a Membrane lab is represented in the diagram below.
Which procedure is represented in the diagram?*
A student is opening and closing clothespins as part of a lab activity. The student begins to experience muscle fatigue, and the rate at which the student is opening and closing the clothespins slows. Which graph best represents the relationship between time and number of clothespin squeezes?*
Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram shows an experimental setup using an artificial plant cell.
Molecules A and B are commonly found in plant cells. When tested, it was discovered that molecule A quickly passed through the artificial plant cell membrane. Molecule B did not pass through.
The locations of molecules A and B at the beginning of the experiment are shown. Which statement best describes what was observed when the setup was examined 20 minutes later?*
State one way the two molecules could differ that would explain the difference in their ability to pass through the artificial plant cell membrane. *
Base your answer to question 78 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram shows a plant called hogweed.
Hogweed is highly toxic and has become invasive in New York State. It can cause severe burns and blisters if touched.
If you were given packaged samples of hogweed plant parts, describe one specific procedure you could use to determine if an unknown plant might be related to hogweed. *
Base your answers to questions 79 through 82 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
A human gene contains the following DNA base sequence: ACGCCCACCTTA
The gene mutated. It then contained the following DNA base sequence: ACGCGCACCTTA
In the table below, record the mRNA codons coded for by the DNA base sequence of the mutated gene ACGCGCACCTTA. *
Then, using the Universal Genetic Code Chart, record the amino acid sequence that is coded for by the mRNA codons you placed in the table. 
Which type of mutation is represented in the new gene?*
The amino acids bond together to form which type of complex molecule?*
A certain small population of finches already has an “ideal” beak type for its present environment. Describe two specific adaptations, other than beak type, that would contribute to the ability of these finches to survive. *
In order to determine the effect of muscle fatigue on the ability of students to squeeze a clothespin, five male students did jumping jacks for three minutes and then squeezed a clothespin as many times as possible in a minute. Three other male students ran up and down the stairs for 30 seconds and then squeezed a clothespin as many times as possible for one minute. The results of the two groups were recorded. Identify one change that could be made to the experiment to increase the validity of the conclusion made from these results. *
There is a group of plants, known as halophytes, that has traits that enable them to survive in salty environments. Describe one change, other than death, that would be observed in the cells of a plant that did not have these traits and was planted in a salty environment. *