Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Regents Test, Full Exam Practice Online: living environment January 2018

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    Base your answers to questions 31 through 33 on the information and graphs below, and on your knowledge of biology. The diagrams below show the number of fish in a lake and the average water temperature in the lake for the months of May through October.

    During certain times of the year, bears feed heavily on a population of fish in a lake. At other times of the year, the bear population feeds primarily on fruits, berries, and insects.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv12018-examw_g9.png

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    Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the information below, and on your knowledge of biology.

    Before conducting an experiment, two students gathered information about the effect of greenhouse gases on global warming. Student A found information in a newspaper article. Student B found information in several peer-reviewed scientific journals and on three websites.

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    Base your answers to questions 39 and 40 on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagrams represent some of the systems that make up the human body.

    homeostasis and immunity, systems of human body fig: lenv12018-examw_g12.png

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    Base your answer to question 41 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    In China, farmers switched from growing conventional cotton, which required spraying with insecticides 15 times each year, to a genetically modified cotton variety called Bt cotton. The Bt cotton produces a protein toxic to the insects that destroy the cotton crop. Since the switch to Bt cotton, the use of chemical insecticides has decreased by 60%.

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    Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the information, diagram, and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The laboratory setup represented below was used to investigate the effect of light on aquatic plants. Equal amounts of a green water plant were placed in beakers with gas- collecting tubes. The beakers were placed in a temperature-controlled environment. The light source was placed at different distances from the beakers. After an hour, the amount of gas collected from the plants in each tube was measured and recorded in the data table.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv12018-examw_g14.png

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv12018-examw_g15.png

    Directions: Using the information given, construct a line graph on the grid following the directions below.

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    Base your answers to questions 49 through 51 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The Bionic Pancreas

    Until recently, diabetics could rely only on regular blood sugar checks, medications, and low-carbohydrate diets in order to maintain their health.

    Bioengineers at Boston University are working to create a bionic pancreas. The device includes a sensor implanted just beneath the skin that monitors blood sugar levels. It sends a wireless signal to a smartphone every five minutes. If the phone receives a signal that blood sugar is too low or too high, it then sends a different signal to a separate device also attached to the body. This device releases the appropriate hormone into the bloodstream to return blood sugar levels back to normal.

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    Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents the energy in kilocalories (kcal) available at different feeding levels in a food chain.

    ecology, energy flow and food web fig: lenv12018-examw_g19.png

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    Base your answers to question 56-58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Reindeer Drool

    The results of new research highlight interesting findings regarding reindeer and moose saliva. Both reindeer and moose feed on a type of grass called red fescue. Red fescue is usually dangerous to eat due to the presence of a fungus with which it has a mutually beneficial relationship. When the red fescue is eaten, the fungus produces a toxin that decreases blood flow in the legs of the moose and reindeer. This could result in the loss of their limbs.

    Since many reindeer and moose successfully feed on red fescue, scientists wondered if their saliva gave them the ability to eat the grass without suffering from circulation problems. Scientists hypothesized that moose and reindeer saliva might detoxify the grass. To conduct their experiment, the researchers smeared reindeer and moose saliva on cut red fescue that contained the fungus. They learned that the saliva slowed the growth of this fungus and detoxified the grass. The reults suggest that some animal species have evolved the ability to fight back against a plant’s natural defenses.

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    Base your answers to questions 61 and 62 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Project Frozen Dumbo – Saving the Elephant Population Means Using Special Breeding

    Over the last 10 years, 70 percent of Africa’s wild elephant population has been killed off. The main cause is ivory poaching, in which elephants are slaughtered for their valuable tusks. At the same time, efforts to breed captive zoo elephants have not been very successful.

    Now there is some good news. At zoos in Austria and England, two baby elephants were born, using sperm from South African wild elephants. For the first time, elephant sperm gathered in the wild was frozen and given to zoos. Two female zoo elephants were artificially impregnated with the sperm and went on to deliver calves. …

    Source: Saving the Elephant Population Means Using Special Breeding, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 8/21/14

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    Base your answers to questions 63 through 65 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Battling Cancer with T-cell Therapy

    One reason that cancer is able to spread through tissues and organs is that cancer cells are actually the patient’s own cells. The immune system of the patient does not recognize these cancer cells as foreign and, therefore, does not reject and destroy them.

    Over the past eight years, immunologists have been developing a treatment for B-cell leukemia that involves using genetically engineered T cells to recognize and destroy B cells, all of which carry a protein, CD19. CD19 is found on the surface of both healthy and cancerous B cells. B cells are immune system cells that produce antibodies.

    The procedure used in this treatment is outlined below:

    1. T cells are removed from the patient with B-cell leukemia.

    2. The T cells are genetically engineered to recognize the CD19 protein.

    3. The patient is injected with the engineered T cells, which attach to cells with CD19 and destroy them.

    4. The engineered T cells destroy both cancerous and healthy B cells.

    This procedure has been successful in several patients. Currently, studies are continuing with more B-cell leukemia patients. It is hoped that the studies will be expanded to include other types of cancer, and that this treatment will be available to treat a variety of cancers in the future.

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    Base your answers to questions 66 through 68 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Hydrothermal Vent Communities

    Scientists discovered a unique hydrothermal ecosystem on the sea floor at hot-water vents thousands of feet below the ocean surface. Organisms in these deep-sea regions have no access to sunlight, so they depend on the heat, methane, and high levels of sulfur-bearing minerals found in the heated fluids in which they live. Scientists were amazed to discover vent communities able to sustain vast amounts of life. The vent organisms depend on bacteria that can use the sulfur-bearing minerals to produce organic materials. These bacteria live on rock surfaces and as free-floating blobs. Some bacteria live within and provide nutrients for an unusual species of giant tubeworms that lacks a digestive system. Snails, shrimp, and clams are among the animals that feed directly on the bacteria. Crabs feed directly on other animals in the vent community.

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    Base your answers to questions 69 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Transgenic Salmon

    Transgenic Atlantic salmon have been produced using DNA from other species of related fish. These genetically modified fish have an altered DNA “switch” that causes them to overproduce growth hormone. The transgenic Atlantic salmon grow to normal size, but they reach market size in half the time of conventional Atlantic salmon. As with most of the salmon consumed by people, the transgenic Atlantic salmon would be grown using aquatic farming methods. Scientists have expressed concern that transgenic fish can have undesirable effects on the natural environment. Fish growers would be expected to take steps to ensure that the transgenic salmon do not escape into the wild.

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    Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram shows an experimental setup using an artificial plant cell.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv12018-examw_g21.png

    Molecules A and B are commonly found in plant cells. When tested, it was discovered that molecule A quickly passed through the artificial plant cell membrane. Molecule B did not pass through.

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    Base your answer to question 78 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram shows a plant called hogweed.

    Hogweed is highly toxic and has become invasive in New York State. It can cause severe burns and blisters if touched.

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv12018-examw_g26.png

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    Base your answers to questions 79 through 82 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A human gene contains the following DNA base sequence: ACGCCCACCTTA

    The gene mutated. It then contained the following DNA base sequence: ACGCGCACCTTA

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv12018-examw_g27.png

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