Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Regents Test, Full Exam Practice Online: living environment June 2018

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    Base your answer to question 32 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    In the early 1600s, a scientist planted a willow tree that weighed 5 pounds in 200 pounds of dry soil. He placed it outside and watered it for 5 years. At the end of that time, he observed that the tree had gained 164 pounds 3 ounces, while the soil had lost just 2 ounces.

    scientific inquiry, observations, inquiries, inferences fig: lenv62018-examw_g13.png

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    Base your answers to questions 38 through 40 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Harmless Skin Virus Fights Acne

    …Acne is caused when hair follicles become blocked with an oily substance called sebum, which the body makes to stop the hair and skin from drying out.

    Normally harmless bacteria, such as Propionibacterium acnes, that live on the skin can then contaminate and infect the plugged follicles.

    Phages [a type of virus] appear to help counteract this. When the scientists sequenced the DNA coding of the phages, they discovered that, as well as sharing most of their genetic material, the viruses all had some key features in common.

    All carry a gene that makes a protein called endolysin – an enzyme thought to destroy bacteria by breaking down their cell walls.

    And unlike antibiotics, which kill many types of bacteria, including “good” ones that live in our gut, phages are programmed to target only specific bacteria…

    Source: BBC News September 25, 2012

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    Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram shows how ATP is used by some cell structures to perform various functions.

    organization and patterns in Life, cell structure and functions fig: lenv62018-examw_g16.png

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    Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Moose-killing Winter Ticks

    Moose habitat is determined by temperature. Moose prefer areas where the average summer temperature is around 15°C and does not exceed 27°C for too long. The reason for this temperature dependency: Moose cannot sweat.

    Besides the cooling effect of water, which moose are almost always near, aquatic environments provide them with a good supply of food, and in the past, have protected them against biting insects. However, the North American moose population is facing a new threat: a parasite called the winter tick. These ticks lodge themselves in the animal’s fur and hold on through the winter, sucking the animal’s blood. Many infected moose end up dying of exhaustion and weakness as a result of the large number of ticks feeding on them.

    Ticks are most active during dry days in the fall. Adult ticks that drop off moose in the spring and land on snow cover have a poorer survival rate. Climate change can be predicted to improve conditions for winter ticks due to longer and warmer falls, and earlier snowmelt in the spring.

    Surveys of the moose population in northeastern Minnesota have recorded the change shown below in the moose population between 2005 and 2013.

    labs, lab, appendix A, laboratory check list, scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv62018-examw_g18.png

    Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below, following the directions below.

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    Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents the evolutionary relationships among many organisms.

    evolution, extinction fig: lenv62018-examw_g20.png

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    Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents trophic levels in an ocean environment.

    ecology, energy flow and food web fig: lenv62018-examw_g21.png

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    Base your answers to question 53-54 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram indicates a change in an ecosystem.

    ecology, succession, change of ecosystems over time, ecology, stability of ecosystems, alteration and recovery of ecosystem fig: lenv62018-examw_g23.png

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    Base your answers to questions 56 through 58 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Our [Nitrogen] Fertilized World

    It is the engine of agriculture, the key to plenty in our crowded, hungry world. … …Enter modern chemistry. Giant factories capture inert nitrogen gas from the vast stores in our atmosphere and force it into a chemical union with the hydrogen in natural gas, creating the reactive compounds that plants crave. That nitrogen fertilizer – more than a hundred million tons applied worldwide every year – fuels bountiful harvests. Without it, human civilization in its current form could not exist. Our planet’s soil simply could not grow enough food to provide all seven billion of us our accustomed diet. In fact, almost half of the nitrogen found in our bodies’ muscle and organ tissue started out in a fertilizer factory.

    Source: National Geographic, May 2013

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    Base your answers to question 59-60 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of exposure to ultraviolet (UV)

    light on the growth of bacteria. Equal quantities of bacterial cells were spread on Petri dishes that are used to grow colonies of bacteria. Half of each dish was shielded from the UV light with a UV screen. The other half was exposed to UV light for various amounts of time. After the UV treatment, the bacteria were grown in an incubator for 24 hours and the number of colonies was counted.

    scientific inquiry, hypothesis and experiment design, labs, lab, appendix A, laboratory check list, scientific inquiry, scientific inquiry, hypothesis and experiment design, access result and draw conclusion fig: lenv62018-examw_g24.png

    The table below contains the data collected at different exposure times by counting the number of bacterial colonies on both the screen-covered side and unscreened side

    scientific inquiry, hypothesis and experiment design, labs, lab, appendix A, laboratory check list, scientific inquiry, scientific inquiry, hypothesis and experiment design, access result and draw conclusion fig: lenv62018-examw_g25.png

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    Base your answers to questions 61 and 62 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Evolution leads to changes in how frequently certain traits appear in a population.

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    Base your answers to questions 63 through 65 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A typical human liver cell can have over 90,000 insulin receptors. Due to a genetic difference, some people have liver cells that contain only about 1000 insulin receptors.

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    Base your answers to questions 66 through 68 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology. Biologists have been studying the genes present in newborn twins.

    Twins Don’t Share Everything

    …Chemicals called epigenetic markers can be attached to those [inherited] genes, like flags or balloons hanging off the sides of the DNA ladder. These don’t just change the look of the genes. Like pieces of tape stuck over a light switch, these markers can force a gene to remain turned on or off. The type of marker scientists studied in the twins generally sticks the switch in the off position so that some proteins don’t get made. And that means the proteins’ jobs won’t get done.

    Every time a cell divides, new epigenetic markers may form. Foods, pollutants, and stress may all contribute to the development of new markers. So throughout our lives we tend to accumulate more and more. But a few are there from the day we’re born.

    …His [Jeffrey Craig’s] team found that newborn twins have markers attached to different genes from the very start. It’s true in identical twins, which come from the same fertilized egg. It’s also true in fraternal twins, which come from different fertilized eggs. However, fraternal twins had more such differences than identical twins did.

    Source: Science News for Students; July 31, 2012

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    Base your answers to questions 69 and 70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    With the emotional roller coaster that pregnancy brings, it can be daunting [challenging] for pregnant women to take on the additional pressure of eating the “perfect” pregnancy diet. The good news: there is no single perfect diet for pregnancy. The best way for expectant mothers to meet their nutritional needs is to focus on consuming an overall healthy diet, with a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, lean meats or meat substitutes, and low-fat dairy or dairy substitutes.…

    Source: US News Health 11/9/2012

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    Base your answer to question 71 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    …Bacteria often evolve clever ways of evading chemical assaults, but they will always struggle to resist the old-fashioned way of killing them; heating them up. It takes only a rela­ tively mild warming to kill bugs [bacteria] without discomfort or harm to tissues. So imagine if little electric heaters could be implanted into wounds and powered wirelessly to fry bacteria during healing before dissolving harmlessly into body fluids once their job is done.…

    Source: BBC Future, May 24, 2013

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    Base your answers to questions 78 and 79 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    During a lab activity, a 14-year-old student took his resting pulse rate. He counted 20 beats in 20 seconds. He calculated his pulse rate for a minute and compared the result to the data shown in the table below.

    labs, lab, making connections fig: lenv62018-examw_g29.png

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    Base your answers to questions 82 and 83 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a laboratory setup.

    A starch solution in a test tube was separated from the water in a beaker by a dialysis membrane. One hour later, it was observed that the liquid had risen in the test tube.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv62018-examw_g34.png

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