Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Regents Test, Full Exam Practice Online: living environment August 2018

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    Base your answers to questions 5 and 6 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    ecology, stability of ecosystems, effect of organism interactions fig: lenv82018-exampw_g1.png

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    Base your answers to questions 31 and 32 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A student designed an experiment to determine if air temperature had an effect on the rate of photosynthesis in corn plants.

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    Base your answers to questions 33 and 34 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph shows the number of animals in a population throughout the course of a year. The population migrated into the area at the beginning of 2011.

    ecology, materials cycle through ecosystems fig: lenv82018-exampw_g8.png

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    Base your answers to questions 37 through 39 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a toxic compound that is produced by plant and animal cells. These cells also produce the enzyme catalase, which converts H2O2 into water and oxygen gas, preventing the buildup of H2O2.

    A student designed an experiment to test the effect of an acidic pH on the rate of the reaction of H2O2 with catalase. The data below summarize the outcome of the experiment.

    scientific inquiry, observations, inquiries, inferences fig: lenv82018-exampw_g10.png

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    Base your answers to questions 41 and 42 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Federal legislation establishes and updates energy-efficiency standards for consumer products, including refrigerators. The graph shows the average annual energy consumption of similar types of refrigerators and the year they were manufactured.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv82018-exampw_g19.png

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    Base your answers to questions 44 through 46 on the data table below and on your knowledge of biology. The data table shows the estimated number of species extinctions from 1960 to 2010.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv82018-exampw_g23.png

    Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid above, following the directions below.

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    Base your answers to questions 47 through 49 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Icefish Evolution

    Over the last 50 million years, icefish evolved many adaptations that contributed to their success in surviving the decreasing water temperatures of the ocean surrounding Antarctica. For example, they have the ability to produce an antifreeze protein that prevents their blood from freezing in waters that are now below the normal freezing point of fresh water.

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    Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Green sea slugs are animals that live in water and have developed the ability to produce their own chlorophyll. These creatures can also pass this ability to make chlorophyll to their offspring. Once the offspring have one meal of algae, they are able to make food using sunlight. This one meal provides the baby slugs with the chloroplasts needed to make use of the chlorophyll, and they are able to produce their own food in the future.

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    Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The testes of a human male produce gametes. The process that produces these gametes differs from the process that produces new skin cells in the same individual.

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    Base your answers to questions 56 through 58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Placental mammals – as opposed to the kind that lay eggs, such as the platypus, or carry young in pouches, such as the kangaroo – are an extraordinarily diverse group of animals with more than 5000 species today. They [placental mammals] include examples that fly, swim, and run, and range in weight from a couple of grams to hundreds of tons. …

    Source: “Earliest Placental Mammal Ancestor Pinpointed,” BBC News, February 7, 2013.

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    Base your answers to questions 59 through 61 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Birds Are Evolving Rapidly–Today

    Many people think that evolutionary change occurs so slowly, we cannot observe it directly. Not so!

    For example today in the U.S., house finches are evolving rapidly and visibly. In 1941, some captive house finches from California escaped near New York City. They spread rapidly and are now found across most of the United States and in southern Canada. Many of these areas have cold, snowy winters, during which many birds die. The finches have evolved, because those that survive differ from their parents. Size is one example.

    Male house finches in recently established populations in Michigan and Montana are larger than the males that escaped. Large males outcompete small males for food, so are more likely to survive the winter. They also pair more successfully with females early in the spring.

    Smaller females survive better than larger females as nestlings. Also, because they need less food to maintain their own bodies, they can breed earlier in spring. Females that breed earlier raise more young than those that start breeding later.

    Rapid evolution of house finches reminds us that evolutionary changes are occurring visibly all around us.

    Source: birdnote.org/show/birds-are-evolving-rapidly-today

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    Base your answers to questions 62 through 64 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    ecology, organization of ecosystems  fig: lenv82018-exampw_g26.png

    Endangered sea turtles in tropical areas are facing a new threat in the form of changing beach temperatures caused by climate change. The sex of sea turtle hatchlings is determined by the temperature inside the nest. Embryos develop into males when the temperature is approximately 28°C (82°F), whereas female embryos develop at approximately 31°C (88°F). If the temperature inside the nest is between these values, then both male and female turtles are produced.

    If these endangered sea turtles are going to survive in the long term, we need to protect their nesting habitat, ensure that the potential nest sites have adequate amounts of shade-producing vegetation (such as palm trees) nearby, and ensure that they are not affected by tourist activities in the area.

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    Base your answers to questions 65 through 68 on the information and photograph below and on your knowledge of biology. The photograph shows a grasshopper mouse howling after eating a scorpion.

    ecology, energy flow and food web fig: lenv82018-exampw_g27.png

    Grasshopper Mice

    In the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States, the grasshopper mouse is active at night, searching for crickets, rodents, tarantulas, and even scorpions. The mouse ignores the venom of the scorpion, kills it, and consumes its flesh. The ability of the mouse to ignore the pain normally associated with the venom of the scorpion is due to the presence of a mutated protein. This protein prevents the pain signal from reaching the brain.

    These mice are born killers, capable of taking down prey that are much larger than themselves. They are also aggressive neighbors and take over nests by displacing other desert inhabitants rather than making their own. Under difficult environmental conditions, they may even eat members of their own species.

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    Base your answers to questions 69 and 70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    To attend public school in New York State, children need to be vaccinated against various diseases. The list below shows some required vaccinations.

    Required Vaccinations

    Polio

    Tetanus

    Pertussis

    Measles

    Mumps

    Rubella

    Diptheria

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    Base your answers to question 71-72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Survey Finds Invasive Snail in St. Lawrence River That Could Threaten Waterfowl

    New research has found a larger presence of faucet snails in the Great Lakes than previously recognized, including the northern parts of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. The invasive species can carry three types of intestinal parasites that can injure and kill waterfowl such as ducks. ...

    ...When the waterfowl eat the snails, the parasites attack internal organs, causing lesions [sores] and hemorrhage [uncontrolled bleeding]. Birds affected by the snail will fly and dive erratically before their eventual death. The university said that the snails are about 12 to 15 millimeters in height at full size, brown to black with a distinctive whorl of concentric circles on the shell opening cover that looks like tree rings. ...

    ...Mr. Kosnicki [an ecologist] said the spread of snails, along with other invasive species, shows the need for increased awareness of possible contaminants coming from boats and in runoff from land. ...

    Source: Watertown Daily Times, Monday, January 19, 2015, by Gordon Block

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    Base your answers to questions 75 through 77 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. The evolutionary tree below represents possible relationships between several species of plants.

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv82018-exampw_g29.png

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    Base your answers to questions 78 and 79 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge of biology. The chart below shows variations in the beaks of finches in the Galapagos Islands.

    labs, lab, the beaks of finches, ecology, relationships among organisms fig: lenv82018-exampw_g32.png

    Source: Galapagos: A Natural History Guide

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    Base your answers to questions 80 and 81 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    In his journey to the Galapagos Islands, Charles Darwin was amazed by the variation in the characteristics of plants and animals he encountered. In any habitat, food can be limited and the types of foods available may vary.

    One year, there was no rain on these islands. Many plants failed to bloom and produced no new seeds. This left mostly large, tough seeds for the finches to eat.

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    Base your answers to questions 82 through 84 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Respiratory Rates

    A student completed a lab activity that demonstrated the connection between pulse rate, heart rate, and flow of blood during exercise. She left her class wondering if there is a connection between breathing rate and exercise. With the help of her track coach, she conducted an investigation to try and find an answer to her question.

    In the investigation, the respiratory rates of thirty athletes were measured before any exercise. To measure their rates, they counted the number of times they took a breath in one minute. Then, they ran one lap around the track, and their respiratory rates were determined again. Finally, they ran two laps around the track and checked their respiratory rates one last time. All of their data were recorded, and the averages were calculated. The data table shows the information obtained in this investigation.

    labs, lab, making connections fig: lenv82018-exampw_g33.png

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