Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Regents Test, Full Exam Practice Online: living environment January 2019

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    Base your answers to questions 31 through 33 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The Extinction of the Passenger Pigeon

    In the early 1800s, the passenger pigeon was the most abundant bird species in North America. These pigeons traveled in flocks sometimes larger than a billion birds. The enormous flock sizes helped protect them from predation by foxes, lynx, owls, and falcons. It also helped them outcompete other animals (squirrels, chipmunks) for chestnuts and acorns, their main food source.

    Unfortunately, this flocking behavior made the passenger pigeons easy targets for the people who killed them for food. The invention of the telegraph to broadcast flock locations to hunters and the expansion of the railroads to ship the pigeons to new food markets had devastating results. By the 1890s, their numbers had dwindled dramatically, with flocks only numbering in the hundreds. In 1914, the passenger pigeon became extinct when the last member of the species died at the Cincinnati Zoo.

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    Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    To study how bacteria respond to antibiotics, four paper discs, three treated with different antibiotics and one treated with water, were placed on a nutrient source with bacteria and left for 24 hours. The water and the antibiotics on the discs diffused into the nutrient source. If the antibiotic stopped the bacteria from growing, a circular area of no bacterial growth around the discs could be seen.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv12019-examw_g9.png

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    Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram shows a small segment of DNA taken from a gene before and after it is copied.

    Changes made during the copying process are represented by * in the diagram.

    genetics and biotechnology, protein synthesis, structure and functions fig: lenv12019-examw_g30.png

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    Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Invasive species have damaged agricultural crops all over the world. One study, completed in Japan, calculated the number of invasive insect species present in Japan from 1880 to 1990. Some of the data are recorded in the table below.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv12019-examw_g12.png

    Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid provided, following the directions below.

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    Base your answers to questions 49 and 50 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    An investigation was conducted to compare two different types of plants. A student used a microscope to observe the cells in a cross section of a lilac leaf (diagram A) and a cell from the leaf of a freshwater plant (diagram B).

    organization and patterns in Life, cell energetics, origin of energy and photosynthesis fig: lenv12019-examw_g15.png

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    Base your answers to questions 51 through 54 on the information and photograph below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Transgenic (GMO) Tomatoes

    The use of pesticides to control insects costs billions of dollars every year. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are an attempt to reduce this cost. Tomato plants that are genetically modified can make proteins that are poisonous to the insects that feed on them. Using these GMO tomatoes would reduce the need for the chemical control of insects.

    genetics and biotechnology, applications of biotechnology fig: lenv12019-examw_g17.png

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    Base your answers to questions 56 through 58 on the food web represented below and on your knowledge of biology. The food web contains some of the organisms found in Glacier National Park.

    ecology, energy flow and food web, ecology, relationships among organisms fig: lenv12019-examw_g19.png

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    Base your answers to questions 59 through 61 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a human enzyme.

    organization and patterns in Life, Enzymes, hormones, receptor, and antibodies fig: lenv12019-examw_g20.png

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    Base your answers to questions 62 through 64 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Dr. Liz Hadly studied the ecology of Yellowstone National Park for 30 years, specifically the amphibians inhabiting the park for 20 of those years. Dr. Hadly studied 46 ponds in 1992-1993. Of these, 43 supported amphibians. From 2006-2008, only 38 of the original 46 ponds contained water. The graph below represents population data for four amphibian species collected by Dr. Hadly during 1992-1993 and 2006-2008.

    scientific inquiry, access result and draw conclusion fig: lenv12019-examw_g21.png

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    Base your answer to question 65-67 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Information From the Cat Gene Database

    A database is being used to trace the evolutionary history of wild and domestic cats. Comparisons show that there are very few differences between the genes present in domestic cats and the genes present in wild cats, such as tigers and lions. Research has also shown that wild cats and domestic cats last shared a common ancestor about 11 million years ago. Since then, there has been very little change in the entire cat genome (the complete set of genes for all the species). This indicates that the cats are well-adapted to change. Yet, there are some important differences.

    Big cats share about 1,376 genes that set them apart from other animals. These genes are related to muscle strength and the ability to digest protein. In addition, there are genes that have been found in specific cats that live in specific environments. Genes related to smell, visual perception, and nerve development are evolving rapidly in Siberian tigers. Snow leopards have three mutations related to the use of oxygen at high altitudes. The database is also being used to study diversity within various cat species.

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    Base your answers to questions 68 through 70 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Here, Eat This Vaccine

    Munching on bacteria could be a good way to stimulate your immune system. Biologist Simon Cutting of the Royal Holloway University of London has transformed bacterial spores into an edible vaccine. He and his collaborators genetically altered the common bacterium Bacillus subtilis so that it produced harmless fragments of the toxin produced by tetanus. Then his team starved the bacterium so that it turned into a spore — a desiccated [dehydrated] packet tough enough to survive a trip through the digestive tract and into the bloodstream. Most of the mice that inhaled or ate the modified spores were then able to survive a lethal dose of tetanus.

    “We selected tetanus because the immunology regarding this disease is well understood,” Cutting says. But engineered bacteria could be similarly tailored to train the immune system to fight anthrax, traveler’s diarrhea, and other illnesses. Edible vaccines would eliminate the need for needles and sterilizing equipment. Moreover, spores can withstand extreme heat and dryness, remaining viable [alive] for thousands of years. Cutting plans to start clinical trials in about two years. If the results measure up, spore vaccines could slash the cost of immunization programs, especially in poor countries where refrigeration is unreliable and transportation can be slow.

    Source: http://discovermagazine.com/2003/aug/breakeat/ Here, Eat This Vaccine, by Zara Herskovits August 1, 2003

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    Base your answers to questions 71 and 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Reproductive Adaptations of Mammals

    Mammals have unique reproductive adaptations that have contributed to their evolutionary success. One of the distinguishing characteristics of mammals is their mammary glands, which allow for the production of milk. Even the more primitive mammals, such as the duck-billed platypus and the kangaroo, have some type of mammary glands. However, only the placental mammals (e.g. humans, horses, dogs) have a placenta, which supports the internal development of the embryo. The most primitive mammals have no placenta and can’t support the internal development of the embryo.

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    Base your answer to question 74 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Some students tested two samples of a mixture of starch and water with two different indicators. The results of these tests are shown in Table 1 below.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv12019-examw_g23.png

    Next, a specific protein was added to two new samples of the starch and water mixture. After waiting 30 minutes, the students tested these samples with the same two indicator solutions. The results are shown in Table 2 below.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv12019-examw_g24.png

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    Base your answers to questions 75 and 76 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents red blood cells placed in three test tubes, each containing a different salt solution.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv12019-examw_g25.png

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    Base your answers to questions 77 and 78 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A species of bird lives on an island. Beak thickness varies within the population. The birds feed mainly on seeds. Birds with smaller beaks can eat only small seeds. Only birds with larger beaks are able to crush and eat large seeds.

    During years with more rain, small seeds are abundant. During dry years, there are very few small seeds, but there are many large seeds.

    labs, lab, the beaks of finches fig: lenv12019-examw_g26.png

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    Base your answer to question 84 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Anoles are a diverse group of lizards that live on several islands including Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. Large populations of several species exist on these islands. The preferred region of the tree inhabited by the six species of anole lizards is represented in the diagram below.

    labs, lab, the beaks of finches fig: lenv12019-examw_g29.png

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    Base your answer to question 85 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A class carried out an experiment to test the effect of rest time after exercise on the breathing rate. Each member of the class ran up and down stairs for 60 seconds. After exercising, they rested. The students then measured their rate of respiration by counting the number of inhales and exhales per minute for 7 minutes. The class then averaged their data.

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