Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Regents Test, Full Exam Practice Online: living environment August 2019

    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    16
    17
    18
    19
    20
    21
    22
    23
    24
    25
    26
    27
    28
    29
    30

    Base your answers to questions 31 and 32 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Fossil Footprints

    Scientists examined a trail of fossil footprints left by early humans in soft, volcanic ash in Eastern Africa. A drawing of the trail of footprints is shown below. Each footprint is represented as a series of lines indicating the depth that different parts of the foot sank into the volcanic ash.

    labs, lab, appendix A, laboratory check list fig: lenv82019-examw_g10.png

    31
    32
    33
    34
    35

    Base your answers to questions 36 through 39 on the information and photograph below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Scientists Investigate Sex Determination in Alligators

    The sex of some reptiles, including the American alligator, is determined by the temperature at which the eggs are incubated. For example, incubating them at 33°C produces mostly males, while incubation at 30°C produces mostly females.

    Scientists recently discovered a thermosensor protein, TRPV4, that is associated with this process in American alligators. TRPV4 is activated by temperatures near the mid-30s, and increases the movement of calcium ions into certain cells involved with sex determination.

    scientific inquiry, hypothesis and experiment design fig: lenv82019-examw_g14.png

    36
    37
    38
    39
    40

    Base your answer to question 41 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a pond ecosystem.

    ecology, energy flow and food web fig: lenv82019-examw_g15.png

    41

    Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the information and photograph below and on your knowledge of biology.

    human influences on the environment, human efforts on reverse of the damage to ecosystems fig: lenv82019-examw_g16.png

    Wild horses called mustangs roam acres of federally owned land in the western United States. These horses have overgrazed the local vegetation to the extent that plants and soils are being lost entirely.

    When the number of mustangs that roam the land exceeds the number of horses that the land can sustain, the government organizes helicopter-driven roundups. The horses are guided into a roped-off area and then are sold to the public or brought to pastures in the Midwest. About one percent of the horses captured die from injuries or accidents that occur during roundups.

    42
    43

    Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    White Nose Syndrome Found in Bats

    White nose syndrome (WNS) is a disease found in bats. The disease, first detected in bats during the winter of 2006, is characterized by the appearance of a white fungus on the nose, skin, and wings of some bats, which live in and around caves and mines. It affects the cycle of hibernation and is responsible for the deaths of large numbers of bats of certain species. In some areas, 80-90% of bats have died. Not all bats in an area are affected, and certain bats that are susceptible in one area are not affected in other areas.

    The roles of temperature and humidity in the environment of the bats are two of the many factors being investigated to help control the disease. Over the past few years, the Conserve Wildlife Foundation of New Jersey conducted summer bat counts of two bat species at 22 different sites, totaled the number, and reported the results. The approximate numbers of bats counted (to the nearest hundred) are listed in the table below.

    labs, lab, appendix A, laboratory check list, scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv82019-examw_g19.png

    Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid on the next page, following the directions below.

    44
    45
    46
    47
    48
    49

    Base your answers to questions 50 through 52 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Biomass Energy

    Biomass is the term for all living, or recently living, materials coming from plants and animals that can be used as a source of energy. Biomass can be burned to produce heat and used to make electricity. The most common materials used for biomass energy are wood, plants, decaying materials, and wastes, including garbage and food waste. Burning the wood and plant matter does produce some air pollutants. Biomass contains energy that originally came from the Sun. Some biomass can be converted into liquid biofuels. These biofuels can be used to power cars and machinery.

    50
    51
    52

    Base your answers to questions 53 and 54 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Photosynthesis is a process that is important to the survival of many organisms on Earth.

    53
    54
    55

    Base your answers to questions 56 through 58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Bye – Bye Bananas?

    The world’s most popular type of banana is facing a major health crisis. According to a new study, a disease caused by a powerful fungus is killing the Cavendish banana, which accounts for 99% of the banana market around the globe. The disease, called tropical race 4 (TR4), has affected banana crops in southeast Asia for decades. In recent years, it has spread to the Middle East and the African nation of Mozambique. Now experts fear the disease will show up in Latin America, where the majority of the world’s bananas are grown. …

    …Once a banana plant is infected with TR4, it cannot get nourishment from water and nutrients, and basically dies of thirst. TR4 lives in soil, and can easily end up on a person’s boots. If the contaminated boots are then worn on a field where Cavendish bananas are grown, the disease could be transferred. “Once a field has been contaminated with the disease, you can’t grow Cavendish bananas there anymore,” Randy Ploetz [scientist] says. “The disease lasts a long time in the soil.”…

    …But Cavendish [banana] is also particularly vulnerable to TR4. The banana is grown in what is called monoculture. “You see a big field of bananas and each one is genetically identical to its neighbor” Ploetz says. “And they are all uniformly susceptible to this disease. So once one plant gets infected, it just runs like wildfire throughout that entire plantation.”…

    Source: http://www.timeforkids.come/new/bye-bye-bananas/3311666

    56
    57
    58

    Base your answers to questions 59 through 61 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Lead Poisoning

    Two pathways by which lead can enter the human body are ingestion and inhalation. Once in the bloodstream, lead is distributed to parts of the body including the brain, bones, and teeth.

    One reason that lead is toxic is that it interferes with the functioning of a variety of enzymes. It acts like metals such as calcium and iron and replaces them, changing the molecular structure of these enzymes. In the case of calcium, lead is absorbed through the same cell membrane channels that take in calcium.

    Lead affects children and adults in different ways. Even low lead levels in children can cause many different problems, including nervous system damage, learning disabilities, decreased intelligence, poor bone growth, and death. In adults, high levels of lead can cause hearing problems, memory and concentration problems, muscle and joint pain, brain damage, and death. It wasn’t until 1971 that steps were taken against the use of lead with the passage of the Lead Poisoning Prevention Act. However, lead is still a public health risk today.

    59
    60
    61

    Base your answers to questions 62 and 63 on the illustration and passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    genetics and biotechnology, heredity affected due to changes in DNA fig: lenv82019-examw_g23.png

    A few breeds of cat have no tails. Manx cats have extremely short tails and may even appear to have no tail at all. Manx cats were first discovered several hundred years ago.

    Scientists have determined that a certain mutation in a group of genes (called T-box genes) interferes with the development of the spine in the cat embryo. Mutations in these T-box genes can cause abnormalities in the number, shape, and/or size of bones in the spines of Manx cats, which results in smaller spines and shorter tails.

    If a Manx cat inherits one copy of the mutated T-box gene and one copy of the normal gene, it will have a very short tail or no tail at all.

    If the cat embryo inherits two copies of these mutated genes, it will stop developing and die. Therefore, all surviving Manx cats have only one copy of the mutated gene.

    62
    63

    Base your answer to question 64-66 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    evolution, altered genes and new inheritable characteristics, evolution, naturel selection, evolution, evolutionary relationships and cladogram fig: lenv82019-examw_g24.png

    Most humans enjoy candy, cake, and ice cream. As a result of evolutionary history, we have a wide variety of tastes. This is not true of all animals. Cats do not seek sweets. Over the course of their evolutionary history, the cat family tree lost a gene to detect sweet flavors. Most birds also lack this gene, with a few exceptions. Hummingbirds are sugar junkies.

    Hummingbirds evolved from an insect-eating ancestor. The genes that detect the savory flavor of insects underwent changes, making hummingbirds more sensitive to sugars. These new sweet-sensing genes give hummingbirds a preference for high-calorie flower nectar. Hummingbirds actually reject certain flowers whose nectar is not sweet enough!

    64-66

    Base your answers to questions 67 through 70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Folic acid is a type of vitamin that is essential for the normal growth and development of cells in the body. If a woman consumes folic acid in her diet before and during the earliest stages of pregnancy, it can help to reduce her baby’s risk for developing a type of birth defect called a neural tube defect. Early in pregnancy, the neural tube forms the brain and spinal cord. If the neural tube does not form properly, serious birth defects may result.

    67
    68
    69
    70

    Base your answers to questions 71 and 72 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents an evolutionary tree.

    evolution, new species formation and evolution fig: lenv82019-examw_g25.png

    71
    72

    Base your answer to question 73 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    During the Relationships and Biodiversity lab, simulated pigments from three plant species were compared to those in Botana curus. The results were similar to those represented below.

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv82019-examw_g26.png

    73

    Base your answer to question 74 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    labs, lab, the beaks of finches fig: lenv82019-examw_g27.png

    Source: Galapagos: A Natural History Guide

    74
    75
    76
    77
    78
    79
    80

    Base your answers to questions 81 through 83 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A cube cut from a potato is placed in a beaker of distilled water. The potato cells have a relatively high concentration of starch and a relatively low concentration of water. The diagram represents the water and starch molecules in and around one of the potato cells in contact with the water in the beaker.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv82019-examw_g29.png

    81
    82
    83
    84

    Base your answer to question 85 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    In an experiment, a membrane bag containing 95% water and 5% salt was placed in a beaker containing 80% water and 20% salt, as shown below. The setup was put aside until the next day.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv82019-examw_g30.png

    85