Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Regents Test, Full Exam Practice Online: living environment January 2020

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    Base your answers to questions 33 and 34 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Anabolic Steroids

    Anabolic steroids are hormones that affect muscle growth. Many athletes take synthetic anabolic steroids, in hopes of developing larger muscles so they can perform better at their sport. These hormones can act like the hormone testosterone. When men take an excess of anabolic steroids, they can have an increase in feminine features. This is due to the fact that the excess of these chemicals signals the male body to stop producing testosterone.

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    Base your answers to questions 35 and 36 on the information in the chart below and on your knowledge of biology.

    evolution, naturel selection fig: lenv12020-examw_g12.png

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    Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the illustration below and on your knowledge of biology. The illustration shows two methods of reproduction, method A and method B.

    reproduction and development, reproduction and development, ansexual reproduction, sexual reproduction fig: lenv12020-examw_g15.png

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    Base your answers to questions 45 through 47 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Measles: Eliminated?

    Measles is a highly contagious viral disease. Infected people first experience a fever, cold-like symptoms, and a rash. Several complications can develop, such as ear infections, diarrhea, pneumonia, encephalitis (swelling of the brain), and death. Prior to the widespread use of the measles vaccine in the 1960s, it is estimated that 3–4 million people were infected every year. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention declared measles eliminated in the United States in 2000. This was accomplished, in part, due to a highly effective vaccination program. However, since 2016 the disease has made a comeback, and there has been an increase in measles cases in recent years.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv12020-examw_g16.png

    Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below, following the directions below.

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    Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The line graphs below represent trends in prey fish populations for each of the five Great Lakes.

    scientific inquiry, observations, inquiries, inferences fig: lenv12020-examw_g18.png

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    Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Barley Gene Lowers Emissions From Rice

    Over half the people on the planet eat rice as a staple food. Growing rice emits methane, a potent greenhouse gas—to the tune of 25 million to 100 million tons of methane every year, a notable contribution to human-caused greenhouse gas emissions…

    …When rice paddies are flooded, methane-producing bacteria thrive on the carbohydrates secreted by rice roots in the oxygen-free soils. The rice plant itself acts as a conduit [pathway], transmitting methane from the soil into the atmosphere…

    Source: Times Tribune 7/23/15

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    Base your answer to question 52 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents the energy relationships in a forest ecosystem.

    ecology, energy flow and food web fig: lenv12020-examw_g20.png

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    Base your answers to questions 53 through 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Glow-Worms

    The European glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca) is an insect and a member of the firefly family. Males are ordinary-looking beetles with brown wings. Females are much larger, don’t have wings, glow, and look like a large larva. Adult glow-worms usually live for less than two weeks. They don’t eat, focusing all their energy on finding a mate. The glow-worm has few enemies. Its body contains a poison that protects it from predators and its light warns would- be attackers that it is not safe to eat.

    Greenish light glows from the end of a female’s abdomen, an organ called the lantern, for up to several hours each night. There are great differences in the size of the female lanterns. In an experiment, scientists found that females with larger lanterns glowed brighter, and the brightest females laid the most eggs. The diagram below shows three different glow-worms.

    evolution, naturel selection fig: lenv12020-examw_g21.png

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    Base your answers to questions 56 through 58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Global Warming

    Throughout its long history, Earth has warmed and cooled time and again. Climate has changed when the planet received more or less sunlight due to subtle shifts in its orbit, as the atmosphere or surface changed, or when the Sun’s energy varied. But in the past century, another force has started to influence Earth’s climate: humanity. …

    …What has scientists concerned now is that over the past 250 years, humans have been artificially raising the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at an ever- increasing rate, mostly by burning fossil fuels, but also from cutting down carbon-absorbing forests. Since the Industrial Revolution began in about 1750, carbon dioxide levels have increased nearly 38 percent as of 2009 and methane levels have increased 148 percent. …

    Source: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov

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    Base your answers to questions 59 through 61 on the information and photograph below and on your knowledge of biology. The photograph shows a handful of croton nuts.

    The Power of the Croton Nut

    The croton nut tree grows in East Africa. It produces a nut that is inedible [to humans], and the tree itself was considered of little use except for firewood. The trees grow over vast areas, and many of these areas have been deforested to get rid of the trees and to make more land available for agriculture.

    Recently, scientists and engineers in Kenya have been able to crush the nuts and obtain oil, which can be used as a less expensive substitute for diesel fuel, a nonrenewable fossil fuel. The leftover nut pulp can be processed and sold for fertilizer, compressed into biofuel briquettes for use in cooking stoves, or converted into feed for chickens, making the commercial use of the croton nut a zero-waste process.

    human influences on the environment, human efforts on reverse of the damage to ecosystems fig: lenv12020-examw_g22.png

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    Base your answers to questions 62 and 63 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    DDT: A “Miracle Pesticide”

    DDT is a pesticide developed during World War II that successfully killed insects, such as mosquitoes, that were a large problem for our soldiers in the Pacific. DDT was also very effective for preventing insect damage to crops, so it was considered, at the time, to be a “miracle pesticide.”

    Soon, however, scientists noticed that DDT was negatively affecting other animals and being passed along food chains. For example, some birds accumulated large amounts of DDT in their tissues, which caused them to lay eggs with weakened shells that broke before hatching.

    Rachel Carson, a marine biologist and author, became concerned about the use of pesticides and their negative effects on the environment. Carson began to write books and speak about the dangers of pesticides. Her actions eventually led to many changes in our use of pesticides and proved valuable to protecting our environment and people from the negative effects that were being discovered about pesticides.

    scientific inquiry, hypothesis and experiment design fig: lenv12020-examw_g23.png

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    Base your answers to questions 64 through 67 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph shows the change in the blood glucose level of one person after eating a cookie.

    organization and patterns in Life, cell energetics, cellular respiration and APT fig: lenv12020-examw_g24.png

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    Base your answer to question 68-71 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Artificial Placenta

    It is estimated that every year more than 15 million babies are born too early. The lungs of these premature infants are often immature and easily damaged. Premature births happen for a variety of reasons—some known and some unknown. Those that are known include infections and conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure. Scientists are researching what causes premature births, in an attempt to develop solutions to prevent them.

    Scientists are also working on the development of an artificial placenta. At the University of Michigan, five premature lambs were placed in artificial placentas and kept alive for weeks. During this time, each lamb’s blood was circulated through its artificial placenta.

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    Base your answers to questions 73 and 74 on the information and Universal Genetic Code Chart below and on your knowledge of biology.

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv12020-examw_g25.png

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    Base your answers to questions 75 and 76 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A forensic scientist is trying to determine if the plant pieces found on a burglary suspect match the plants found outside a home that was robbed. The suspect had plant pieces in the hood of his jacket as well as green stains on the knees of his jeans.

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    Base your answers to questions 77 and 78 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The diagram below represents a lab setup. The artificial cell (dialysis tube) contains a starch solution and the beaker contains a solution of starch indicator and water. The setup is left undisturbed for twenty minutes.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv12020-examw_g26.png

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    Base your answer to question 79 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    labs, lab, the beaks of finches fig: lenv12020-examw_g27.png

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    Base your answer to question 81 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A student added equal volumes of water to two different beakers. He then added blue food dye to one and yellow to the other. Next, he placed a white paper towel across the two beakers so that it went down into the liquid and connected the two beakers.

    labs, lab, diffusion through a membrane fig: lenv12020-examw_g28.png

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    Base your answers to questions 82 and 83 on the information and photograph below and on your knowledge of biology.

    A Close Relative of the Elephant

    A hyrax is an animal that has been called a rock rabbit and looks like a guinea pig. Fossil records show that hyraxes first appeared on Earth approximately 37 million years ago. As they evolved, some became mouse-sized, while some were the size of a horse. Some eventually adapted to marine life and are related to manatees, and some became grazers and are related to elephants.

    labs, lab, relationships and biodiversity fig: lenv12020-examw_g29.png

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    Base your answers to questions 84 and 85 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.

    During a lab experiment a student took his resting pulse rate, counting 23 beats in 20 seconds. The student then exercised for several minutes. The student’s pulse was taken immediately after the exercise, and then every minute for 6 minutes. The graph below shows changes in the pulse rate after the exercise was completed.

    labs, lab, making connections fig: lenv12020-examw_g31.png

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