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The respiratory system of an elephant functions in a similar way to which organelle in a single- celled organism?*
The carrying capacity of an environment may be decreased by*
The offspring of a species of bird known as the European roller possess an effective defense mechanism. When they sense a threat by predators, the young birds vomit and cover themselves with a foul-smelling liquid.
Which two systems work together to alert the young birds of danger and help produce the vomit?*
A decrease in the biodiversity of an ecosystem usually leads to*
Down syndrome occurs when an individual has an extra copy of chromosome 21. This additional genetic material alters development and results in Down syndrome. This genetic abnormality is an example of*
Most of the reactions by which energy from carbohydrates is released for use by the cell take place within the*
Which human activity best represents a method for recycling nutrients?*
Rabbit populations vary in size over time. An increase in which factor would likely prevent the rabbit population from steadily increasing?*
The diagrams below represent two reproductive processes used by different organisms.
When compared to organisms that utilize process A, organisms that utilize process B would most likely produce offspring with*
A weightlifter has spent years building his muscular strength. His newborn daughter has normal strength for a baby. Which statement best explains this situation?*
When it is disturbed, the bombardier beetle is able to produce and release a hot spray of irritating chemicals from the end of its body, as shown in the photo below. As a result, most animals that have experienced this defense avoid the beetles in the future.
The beetle’s defense mechanism has developed as a result of*
Rejection of a newly transplanted organ is caused by*
One of the largest and oldest organisms on Earth is located in Fishlake National Forest in Utah. Pando is an 80,000-year-old grove of aspen trees that covers 100 acres. Although it looks like a forest, DNA analysis of several of the “trees” has confirmed it is really just one huge organism. Therefore, the “trees” must have been reproduced*
A female giraffe has 62 chromosomes in each of her skin cells.
How many chromosomes will be in the skin cells of her offspring?*
Many female mammals, such as dogs, give birth to litters consisting of multiple offspring. All of the characteristics described below are reproductive adaptations that female dogs have for giving birth and caring for several offspring at once, except*
As blood glucose levels increase, hormones are released to return glucose levels to normal. This is an example of*
BRCA genes are human genes that normally work to help shut down cancer cells before they can harm the body. Scientists have learned that individuals inheriting a damaged form of a BRCA gene are at greater risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer. This discovery is an important first step in*
In humans, embryonic development during the first two months is more sensitive to environmental factors than during the remaining months. The best explanation for this statement is that*
Gene editing can be used to swap out an unwanted gene for a desirable one from the same species. Which statement best explains why the desired gene will be found in all cells that come from the genetically edited cell?*
Which sequence of events best represents ecological succession?*
Which human activity has the potential to greatly affect the equilibrium of an ecosystem?*
Which statement describes a failure of homeostasis in humans?*
Some environmental engineering companies have recently designed “manufactured wetlands” to serve as natural sewage treatment plants. Utilizing the ability of wetland organisms to reduce human wastes makes use of naturally occurring*
A hummingbird may need to consume up to 50% of its body weight in sugar each day, just to meet its energy needs. Some of this energy is stored and some is used for metabolic activities, but much of the energy is*
Sustainable development occurs when people use their resources without depleting them. Which human activity is the best example of sustainable development?*
Ringworm is a skin infection common among school-aged children. Although the name suggests that a worm causes the disease, it is actually caused by a fungus that lives and feeds on the dead outer layer of the skin. The relationship between ringworm and humans can be described as*
Genetically identical yarrow plants were grown at different altitudes. Even though their genetic makeup was identical, the plants grew to different heights. One likely explanation for the different heights of the plants at each altitude is that*
Which biological process is represented in the diagram below?
The diagram below shows specialized plant cells that control openings called stomates.
The proper function of these cells is vital to the survival of the plant because they regulate the*
Substance X directly supplies energy for various life functions, as shown in the diagram below.
Which substance is represented by X in the diagram?*
Base your answers to questions 31 through 33 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
A student set up an experiment to test the effect of the number of seedlings planted in one pot on the rate of growth. All conditions in the experiment were the same, except for the number of plants in each pot. The results are shown in the graph below.
The most likely reason for the differences in plant growth in the different pots was*
According to the graph, which statement is true concerning the growth of the plants?*
The dependent variable for this experiment was*
Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents interactions between organisms in an ecosystem.
Which statement correctly identifies a possible role of one organism in this ecosystem?*
Which statement correctly describes an interaction that contributes to the stability of this ecosystem?*
Base your answers to questions 36 and 37 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The Venus flytrap is a plant that uses specialized leaves in order to capture and digest small insects.
Although the Venus flytrap uses its prey to obtain certain molecules that it needs, it is still classified as a producer because it*
Enzymes secreted by cells in the leaves of the Venus flytrap can digest*
Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Ulcers: Mystery Solved
Stomach ulcers are painful sores that develop in the stomach. Doctors once thought that ulcers were caused by stress. In the 1980s, a pair of physicians, Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren, questioned the cause of ulcers. They found the bacterium Helicobacter pylori in the ulcer tissue of their patients. Even though they repeatedly presented their findings to colleagues, they were ignored until Marshall performed an astonishing experiment: He drank broth containing the bacteria and made himself sick with an ulcer! He then cured himself by taking an antibiotic.
The results were published in 1985, but it took another 10 years for doctors to regularly use antibiotics to treat ulcers. Marshall and Warren received a Nobel Prize in 2005 for this discovery.
Which choice represents a possible hypothesis for Marshall’s experiment?*
The work of Marshall and Warren shows that*
The structural formulas shown below represent parts of two different complex carbohydrate molecules composed of glucose subunits. Molecules 1 and 2 differ in their overall structure.
Due to the differences in structure, each of these molecules most likely*
To capture their prey, spiders have fangs, which pierce the body wall of insects and inject venom. Spider venoms usually contain specific proteins that attack the cell membranes of the prey. The membranes and most of the contents of the insect’s body turn into a liquid that the spider then ingests for food.
These specific venom proteins are most likely*
Lymphatic capillaries are found throughout the body. Both the lymphatic and circulatory systems transport substances between the bloodstream and body tissues. These two systems are also involved in fighting infections.
The arrows shown in the diagram that go from the blood capillaries to the interstitial fluid most likely represent the*
The graph below shows how the introduction of the opossum shrimp, as a food source for salmon, affected a lake ecosystem in Montana.
Based on the data in this graph, one likely conclusion that can be made is that over approximately ten years*
Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
Peregrine falcons are an endangered species in New York State. This crow-sized predator feeds primarily on birds. Starting in the 1940s, exposure to the pesticide DDT in their prey caused declines in the peregrine falcon population. These pesticides caused eggshell thinning, which drastically lowered breeding success. By the early 1960s, peregrine falcons no longer nested in New York State. After the United States banned DDT in 1972, efforts were made to reintroduce peregrine falcons into the Northeast. Since the 1980s, the peregrine falcons are once again breeding in many areas of New York State.
Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid provided, following the directions below.
Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each labeled axis. *
Plot the data on the grid. Connect the points and surround each point with a small circle. 
Identify a body system in the falcon that was directly affected by DDT and led to the loss of nesting peregrine falcons from New York State in the early 1960s. Support your answer. 
Which conclusion is best supported by the information presented in the graph?*
Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
A scientist added an antibiotic to a Petri dish containing bacterial colonies. A day later, the scientist noticed that many colonies had died, but a few remained. The scientist continued to observe the dish and noted that, eventually, the remaining colonies of bacteria increased in size.
Explain why the results of this study may indicate one disadvantage of using antibiotics to fight infections. *
The survival of some bacterial colonies was most likely due to*
Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The diagrams below provide information about two separate species of tree frogs found in the United States. The shaded areas represent the habitats of each of the two species.
Tree Frogs of the United States
One likely reason that the gray tree frog occupies a larger environmental area than the green tree frog is that the gray tree frog species*
Identify a biological process that led to the presence of 90 different species of frogs throughout the United States. Support your answer. 
Base your answer to question 52 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram below represents the human female reproductive system.
Select one of the lettered parts from the diagram. Circle the letter of the part that you selected, and identify the part. State how a malfunction in the structure that you identified could interfere with an individual’s ability to reproduce. 
Part selected (circle one) A B C
The diagram below represents a cell nucleus. Complete the diagram so that it shows the arrangement of the genetic material in the two new cells that are produced by mitosis. 
Sometimes a hypothesis is not supported. Yet, scientists consider the findings valuable. State one reason scientists would value an experiment that does not support the initial hypothesis. *
The sequence below represents different organizational levels within the human body, from the simplest to more complex. Complete the sequence by correctly filling in the missing levels. 
organelles → ________________ → tissues → ________________ → organ systems → organism*
Base your answers to questions 56 through 58 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
Indian Ocean Ecosystem in Danger
The Indian Ocean is under increasing environmental pressures. Until recently, this ocean was considered to have the least ecologically disrupted coastline. However, as the surface water temperatures have increased, there has been a reduction in the phytoplankton population (microscopic producers). This reduction in phytoplankton has been linked to a decline in some fish populations.
Also affecting the fish populations is the urbanization of coastal areas. As the human population grows in this area, more of the coastline region is being developed. In addition, the mining of natural resources has led to oil spills, the destruction of mangrove forests, and an increase in the area’s acidity level.
Countries along the coast are trying to encourage development while, at the same time, trying to maintain a healthy coastal ecosystem.
Explain how a reduction in phytoplankton can lead to a reduction in fish populations in the Indian Ocean. *
Describe how one specific human activity mentioned in the passage could negatively affect the Indian Ocean ecosystem. 
State one specific reason why it is important to maintain a healthy ecosystem in the Indian Ocean. *
Base your answers to questions 59 through 61 on the photo and reading passage below, and on your knowledge of biology.
Invasive Water Chestnuts Challenge Environmentalists
Environmental scientists are troubled by the rapid spread of the water chestnut plant. This invasive plant is a freshwater species with leaves that blanket the surface of water. The leaves grow so densely, they stop people from swimming and prevent boats from moving.
Invasive water chestnut leaves prevent 95% of the sunlight from reaching the water below. Local animals and insects cannot eat this plant. New York ecosystems infested by the water chestnut are quickly disrupted. Water chestnut seeds can survive more than ten years under water in the sediments.
The most effective way to kill the water chestnut is to pull out each plant by hand. This can be done in a small pond, but for rivers and lakes that are blocked by huge numbers of water chestnut plants, other methods are needed. Chemical herbicides kill the leaves, but, after several weeks, the water chestnut plants grow back. Large machines have been used to clear these plants and seeds from the water and sediments of ecosystems, but the machines remove many other organisms too.
State one way that the presence of water chestnut plants affects the other organisms in the freshwater ecosystem. *
Some scientists recommend bringing in biological controls, such as introducing a new species of insect to eat the water chestnut leaves and stop its growth. State one advantage and one disadvantage of using biological controls in this situation. 
Harvesting machines are used to scrape water chestnut plants and seeds from the bottom of lakes and rivers. State one disadvantage of this method of controlling water chestnuts. *
Base your answers to questions 62 and 63 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Rising CO2 [Carbon Dioxide] Levels in Ocean Block Sharks’ Ability to Smell Prey
…Changes in the chemistry of the world’s oceans expected by century’s end could impact the hunting ability of sharks, which depend heavily on their sense of smell to locate prey, researchers say.
As ocean waters turn increasingly acidic from absorbing atmospheric CO2 created by human activities, the odor-detecting ability of sharks to locate prey could diminish, they say. …
Source: Jim Algar, Tech Times, 9/9/14
Identify one human activity and describe how it contributes to increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the environment. 
Describe how the inability of sharks to detect their prey could affect an ocean ecosystem. *
Base your answers to questions 64 through 66 on the information and photo below and on your knowledge of biology. The photo shows an adult female weasel.
Weasels Are Built for the Hunt
Weasels are fierce and quick-witted carnivores that must compete for food with larger predators. Their slender, elongated body plan allows them to pursue prey in tight spaces that other carnivores can’t enter, a key factor in controlling rodent and rabbit populations. This body plan is important to the success of weasels. Female weasels have evolved to give birth to fetuses that have not fully completed development. The fetuses complete their development externally. In this way, there is no baby bump to limit the mother’s access to tight feeding locations.
A high energy level is key to the weasel’s success in capturing prey, but it comes at a price. To survive, weasels need to eat a third of their body weight per day. This need can make them unpopular with poultry farmers, because they can enter through the smallest opening and consume large numbers of chickens.
State how the body plan of the weasel is effective for successfully competing with other organisms. *
If the weasels are so successful, explain why they do not completely overpopulate the areas where they live. *
Indicate whether the weasels’ relationship with humans is positive or negative by circling the appropriate term below. Support your answer. 
Relationship (circle one): positive negative
Base your answers to questions 67 and 68 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which can lead to AIDS, is a type of virus that adds its genetic material to the DNA of the host cell. HIV reproduces within the host cell and exits through a process called budding.
In the process of budding, the newly forming virus merges with the host cell membrane and pinches off, taking with it a section of the host-cell membrane. It then enters into circulation.
Explain how an outer covering composed of a section of a cell membrane from the host would protect HIV from attack by the host’s immune system. *
Describe one specific way that HIV makes the body unable to deal with other pathogens and cancer. *
Base your answers to questions 69 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Snakes Used to Have Legs and Arms Until These Mutations Happened
The ancestors of today’s slithery snakes once sported full-fledged arms and legs, but genetic mutations caused the reptiles to lose all four of their limbs about 150 million years ago, according to two new studies. …
Both studies showed that mutations in a stretch of snake DNA called ZRS (the Zone of Polarizing Activity Regulatory Sequence) were responsible for the limb-altering change. But the two research teams used different techniques to arrive at their findings. …
…According to one study, published online today (Oct. 20, 2016) in the journal Cell, the snake’s ZRS anomalies [differences] became apparent to researchers after they took several mouse embryos, removed the mice’s ZRS DNA, and replaced it with the ZRS section from snakes. …
…The swap had severe consequences for the mice. Instead of developing regular limbs, the mice barely grew any limbs at all, indicating that ZRS is crucial for the development of limbs, the researchers said. …
Looking deeper at the snakes’ DNA, the researchers found that a deletion of 17 base pairs within the snakes’ DNA appeared to be the reason for the loss of limbs.
State one possible advantage for a snake to have no limbs instead of four limbs. *
Identify the technique that the scientists used to remove the ZRS DNA from mice and replace it with the ZRS section from snakes. *
Identify the type of mutation responsible for the loss of limbs in snakes. *
Without having DNA samples from snakes 150 million years ago, state how scientists could know that snakes once actually had legs. *
Base your answers to questions 73 and 74 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
Finding Relationships Between Organisms
Organisms living in the same environment may have similar body structures, but this does not always indicate a close biological relationship. The chart below provides information about four organisms that live in an Antarctic Ocean ecosystem.
Two features that would be the most useful in determining which of these organisms are most closely related are*
Which lab procedure can be done to find molecular evidence for relationships between these Antarctic marine organisms?*
As an extension of the lab activity Making Connections, a biology teacher asked students to brainstorm variables other than exercise that would affect heart rate. The students hypothesized that eating a lunch high in protein would decrease heart rates. They recorded resting heart rates of 20 students, had them eat high- protein meals, and then recorded their heart rates again. The heart rates of 15 students were lower while the heart rates for 5 students were higher after lunch.
The best explanation for the observation that the heart rates of 5 students were higher after lunch is*
Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
A recent study of Darwin’s finches in the Galapagos Islands identified the gene, HMGA2, that is involved in beak size. It played a role in which finches feeding on smaller seeds survived a severe drought in 2004-2005. Following the drought, the average size of the medium ground finch beak decreased. This change was traced directly to changes in the frequency of the HMGA2 gene. Previous studies have shown that HMGA2 affects body size in animals, including dogs and horses, and even humans.
One possible reason that such diverse species could be affected by the HMGA2 gene is that*
State one possible reason the medium ground finches with a smaller beak were able to survive during the 2004-2005 drought. Support your answer. *
Base your answer to question 78 on the information and the Universal Genetic Code Chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
Original DNA for protein X: TAC-GGC-TTA-GCT-CCC-GCG-CTA-AAA
Mutated DNA for protein X: TAC-GGC-TTG-GCT-CCT-GCG-CTA-AAA
Would the mutated DNA strand affect the functioning of protein X? Support your answer. *
Base your answers to questions 79 and 80 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a hypothetical result of a technique used in a lab.
State where on the diagram the largest fragments of DNA would be located. *
Identify the factor that caused the fragments to move through the gel rather than remaining in the wells. *
Base your answer to question 81 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The diagram represents a sugar cube being dropped into an undisturbed beaker of water at room temperature. One sugar molecule is labeled.
Which diagram below represents the distribution of sugar molecules in the water a day later?
In an effort to determine how closely related several plant species are, a student performed the laboratory test shown below.
The method used by the student to compare plant extracts from the different species is*
Base your answer to question 83 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph shows the average heart rate data for a group of students before, during, and after exercise.
State one benefit of the increase in average heart rate during exercise. *
Base your answers to questions 84 and 85 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
A Clothespin Experiment
A student in a Living Environment class designed an experiment to investigate if the number of times a student squeezes a clothespin varies with the hand used. Her hypothesis was that students could squeeze a clothespin more times in a minute when they used their dominant hand than when they used their nondominant hand.
During her investigation, she first squeezed and released a clothespin as often as possible for 20 seconds with her dominant hand. She recorded the number of squeezes in a chart.
She performed three trials before resting. After that, she repeated the entire procedure with her nondominant hand. Some of the data are shown in the table below.
Calculate the clothespin-squeezing rates per minute and average for the dominant hand. Record the data in the data table below for all three trials, as well as the average squeezing rate per minute. You should have four numbers recorded. 
After performing the experiment, the student’s laboratory write-up indicated that the hypothesis was supported. Do you agree with this student? Support your answer. 
Agree (circle one): Yes No