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Some people see the benefit of wind energy as a clean alternative to fossil fuels for energy production. Others believe it is dangerous for migratory birds. These opinions best illustrate that decisions about alternate energy sources*
Certain animal species that are endangered or threatened have been cloned. Closely related species have been used to carry the embryos of the endangered species. This process of increasing the population size of a species in danger of becoming extinct is an example of a*
Overfishing has depleted the rich harvests of fish from the oceans. As a solution, a large industry that cultivates shrimp and fish in warm coastal ponds has been developed. To make way for these ponds, mangrove forests are cut down. Local organisms are displaced. In order for people to decide if this new fish farming technology is a good long-term solution, they must consider*
Scientists in Brazil have developed specific fertilizers and special breeds of soybeans and corn so crops can grow on large areas of tropical lands. This is valuable because farmers can help to feed the growing human population and strengthen the economy. However, trade-offs must be considered because farming on tropical lands can also*
Traditional lightbulbs are only 10% efficient. Ninety percent of the energy they use is converted to heat. Modern lightbulbs are much more efficient, but may cost three times as much as traditional lightbulbs. Consumers who switch to modern lightbulbs are most likely*
Base your answer to question 6 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
In China, farmers switched from growing conventional cotton, which required spraying with insecticides 15 times each year, to a genetically modified cotton variety called Bt cotton. The Bt cotton produces a protein toxic to the insects that destroy the cotton crop. Since the switch to Bt cotton, the use of chemical insecticides has decreased by 60%.
An advantage of growing the genetically modified Bt cotton instead of conventional cotton is that growing Bt cotton could*
A company that produces paint is planning to build a small factory in a rural community. The factory would provide many needed jobs. Before the community agrees to allow the factory to be built, the community should*
When deciding on new environmental policies and laws, which term is used to describe the comparison between benefits and costs of human activities?*
Base your answer to question 9-12 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Environmentalists and public health experts are warning the public about some chemicals that they come in contact with daily, such as PBDEs and phthalates. PBDEs are used to make children’s clothing flame retardant and phthalates are used to manufacture many plastic bottles, toys, and cosmetics. Both of these chemicals accumulate in the body and endanger health.
In one family tested, the young children had PBDE levels seven times that of their parents. These levels were two to three times the levels that caused thyroid problems in animals. Animal studies have shown that phthalates cause reproductive defects. Even at low levels, phthalates may contribute to infertility and impaired testes in males. Both chemicals can cause nervous system damage.
Biomonitoring is a technology used to test for levels of industrial chemicals found in the body. The technology is less than ten years old, but results from animal studies led some countries to ban PBDEs in 2004.
Presently, the United States EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) does not require chemical manufacturers to conduct human toxicity studies prior to approval for use. If concerns regarding risk or exposure arise during the approval process, the EPA can ask for additional testing. Additional testing occurs for approximately 10 percent of the new chemicals submitted each year. The EPA has also set up voluntary testing programs with major chemical manufacturers to rate some of the 3,000 most widely used chemicals.
The use of industrial chemicals, such as PBDEs and phthalates, provides both advantages and disadvantages. Discuss the disadvantages of using these chemicals. In your answer, be sure to:
• state one specific reason why public health officials are concerned about the use of these chemicals 
• identify the technique used to determine exposure levels to these chemicals in humans 
• state one possible reason why young children might have higher levels of exposure to these chemicals than do adults 
• state one possible reason why chemical manufacturers might participate in the voluntary testing programs set up by the EPA *
Base your answer to question 13-16 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.
At an observatory in Mauna Loa, Hawaii, scientists have been measuring and collecting data related to changes in the atmosphere since the 1950s. The remote location of the observatory makes it ideal for studying atmospheric conditions that can cause climate change. One specific measurement taken is the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Information for a 7-year period is shown in the graph below.
Analyze the data shown in the graph. In your answer, be sure to:
• state the overall relationship between time and carbon dioxide levels 
• state one possible cause for the overall change in the carbon dioxide levels shown in the graph 
• identify the biological process that might account for the decreases in carbon dioxide levels 
• identify two actions carried out by humans that could lower carbon dioxide levels *
Base your answer to question 17 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Bisphenol-A (BPA), is an industrial chemical commonly added to disposable, plastic water bottles to make them sturdier. BPA has been shown to inhibit the development of tadpoles into frogs. Some tadpoles exposed to high levels of BPA develop into frogs without legs. Others, when exposed to the chemical as tadpoles, fail to reabsorb their tails and thus grow into frogs with significantly long tails.
State one specific way humans can help decrease the exposure of animals to bisphenol-A. *
State one possible negative impact of importing a natural predator to control a pest. *
Base your answers to questions 19 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
New York State relies on natural gas for 24% of its energy supply. It is estimated that large deposits of natural gas are located in New York State. It is possible to extract the gas via high-volume hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking). Hydrofracking involves freeing the natural gas by using a large amount of water treated with chemicals, which produces large quantities of waste products. Some people are in favor of hydrofracking, while others are against it. One side is concerned about the negative effect it will have on the environment. The other side points out the potential benefits it might provide.
Describe a trade-off that must be considered in the decision whether to move forward with hydrofracking. *
Base your answers to questions 20 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Mosquito Technologies of New York, Inc., has developed a Mosquito Killing System (MKS) to help control the mosquito population and reduce the transmission of West Nile Virus. The MKS works by taking advantage of the natural hunting strategies of mosquitoes, such as heat sensing and carbon dioxide detection. Beneficial insects do not use the same hunting strategies. The MKS unit produces heat and releases carbon dioxide in cycles, mimicking the breathing and body temperatures of humans, pets, and other warm-blooded animals. This attracts the mosquitoes to the device and, once inside, a vacuum pulls them in, where they pass through an electrocution grid, killing them. The mosquito remains are then returned to the environment through the bottom of the unit.
The unit contains a solar-powered photocell that turns the device on at dusk and turns it off at dawn.
A town wants to buy a number of MKS devices to solve their mosquito problem. One individual is concerned that this device could have a negative effect on insects that are beneficial to the environment. Based on the information given, is this a valid concern? Support your answer. *
Base your answers to questions 21 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Solid Waste Management Act of 1988
In the Solid Waste Management Act of 1988, the New York State legislature established our State Solid Waste Management Policy. The solid waste management priorities in New York State are:
(a) first, to reduce the amount of solid waste generated; (b) second, to reuse material for the purpose for which it was originally intended or to
recycle material that cannot be reused; (c) third, to recover, in an environmentally acceptable manner, energy from solid waste
that can not be economically and technically reused or recycled; and (d) fourth, to dispose of solid waste that is not being reused, recycled or from which
energy is not being recovered, by land burial or other methods approved by the department.
Identify one factor that would hinder recycling efforts within a community and state how it could be corrected.