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Which human activity best represents a method for recycling nutrients?*
The chart below summarizes the effect of commercial fishing on a local Atlantic cod population over an 9-year period.
According to the chart, it can be concluded that*
Damage to the ozone shield over the United States is likely to cause*
Base your answer to question 4 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
What information would be appropriate to add to box X in order to complete the diagram?*
Many oak trees are cut down and removed from an oak-hickory forest. A likely result of the direct harvesting of the oak species would be the*
Microbeads are tiny, smooth, plastic spheres found in common household products such as facial soap. These beads, measuring from 0.0004 to 1.24 mm, roughly the size of some fish eggs, are too small to be removed by water treatment systems. Thus, they end up in rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water. The accumulation of these microbeads is an environmental concern for aquatic biologists because microbeads*
When humans place grass clippings and other yard waste in landfills, they are most directly interfering with the natural process of*
More than 100 years ago, Earth’s atmosphere contained about 280 parts per million (ppm) of carbon dioxide. It is predicted that by the year 2050, the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could reach 700 ppm, greatly increasing Earth’s temperature. It has been suggested that growing more green plants would help to slow this increase. The best explanation for why increased numbers of plants would help is that plants*
Many communities have started programs to dispose of evergreen trees after the holiday season. These programs allow individuals to bring these trees to be shredded, and the resulting chips are spread around parks and recreational areas as mulch. These programs benefit the environment by*
Some owners of beautifully landscaped homes along the shores of the Finger Lakes use fertilizer on their lawns. When it rains, some fertilizer is washed into the lakes and causes increased plant growth in the lakes. State one effect that this increased plant growth could have on the aquatic ecosystem. *
Base your answer to question 11-14 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.
At an observatory in Mauna Loa, Hawaii, scientists have been measuring and collecting data related to changes in the atmosphere since the 1950s. The remote location of the observatory makes it ideal for studying atmospheric conditions that can cause climate change. One specific measurement taken is the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Information for a 7-year period is shown in the graph below.
Analyze the data shown in the graph. In your answer, be sure to:
• state the overall relationship between time and carbon dioxide levels 
• state one possible cause for the overall change in the carbon dioxide levels shown in the graph 
• identify the biological process that might account for the decreases in carbon dioxide levels 
• identify two actions carried out by humans that could lower carbon dioxide levels *
Base your answers to questions 15 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Solid Waste Management Act of 1988
In the Solid Waste Management Act of 1988, the New York State legislature established our State Solid Waste Management Policy. The solid waste management priorities in New York State are:
(a) first, to reduce the amount of solid waste generated; (b) second, to reuse material for the purpose for which it was originally intended or to
recycle material that cannot be reused; (c) third, to recover, in an environmentally acceptable manner, energy from solid waste
that can not be economically and technically reused or recycled; and (d) fourth, to dispose of solid waste that is not being reused, recycled or from which
energy is not being recovered, by land burial or other methods approved by the department.
Identify one factor that would hinder recycling efforts within a community and state how it could be corrected. 
Base your answers to questions 16 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.
Dr. Liz Hadly studied the ecology of Yellowstone National Park for 30 years, specifically the amphibians inhabiting the park for 20 of those years. Dr. Hadly studied 46 ponds in 1992-1993. Of these, 43 supported amphibians. From 2006-2008, only 38 of the original 46 ponds contained water. The graph below represents population data for four amphibian species collected by Dr. Hadly during 1992-1993 and 2006-2008.
Explain how global warming could have affected Yellowstone frog and salamander habitats, resulting in changes in the populations of these species. *
Base your answers to questions 17 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Over the past few decades, researchers have observed declining numbers in two species of penguins native to the West Antarctic peninsula. New evidence is pointing to a decline in their food supply as the primary cause for the recent drops in their numbers. These penguins feed on krill, small animals that grow and develop under ice masses. The graphs below show data related to two factors: atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and Antarctic ice mass. The diagram of a generalized Antarctic food web illustrates the role of the penguins.
State one possible relationship between CO2 levels and the change in Antarctic ice mass. *
Base your answers to questions 18 on the passage and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
Records from polar ice cores show that the natural range of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past 800,000 years was 170 to 300 parts per million (ppm) by volume. In the early 20th century, scientists began to suspect that CO2 in the atmosphere might be increasing beyond this range due to human activities, but there were no clear measurements of this trend. In 1958, Charles David Keeling began measuring atmospheric CO2 at the Mauna Loa observatory on the big island of Hawaii.
Identify one likely reason for the overall change in CO2 concentration observed between 1958 and 2015. *