Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Immune Response


    Base your answers to questions 13 on the data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    homeostasis and immunity, vaccinations fig: lenv12013-exam_g23.png


    Base your answers to questions 14 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Battling Cancer with T-cell Therapy

    One reason that cancer is able to spread through tissues and organs is that cancer cells are actually the patient’s own cells. The immune system of the patient does not recognize these cancer cells as foreign and, therefore, does not reject and destroy them.

    Over the past eight years, immunologists have been developing a treatment for B-cell leukemia that involves using genetically engineered T cells to recognize and destroy B cells, all of which carry a protein, CD19. CD19 is found on the surface of both healthy and cancerous B cells. B cells are immune system cells that produce antibodies.

    The procedure used in this treatment is outlined below:

    1. T cells are removed from the patient with B-cell leukemia.

    2. The T cells are genetically engineered to recognize the CD19 protein.

    3. The patient is injected with the engineered T cells, which attach to cells with CD19 and destroy them.

    4. The engineered T cells destroy both cancerous and healthy B cells.

    This procedure has been successful in several patients. Currently, studies are continuing with more B-cell leukemia patients. It is hoped that the studies will be expanded to include other types of cancer, and that this treatment will be available to treat a variety of cancers in the future.


    Base your answers to questions 15 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology

    Fungi are interesting organisms that interact with humans in many ways. Yeasts are fungi used in the food industry to produce products such as bread and certain beverages. Some fungi are valuable in medicine. For example, the drug cyclosporine, which is capable of suppressing the response of the immune system to foreign antigens, and the antibiotic penicillin are both products from fungi. Other fungi are less welcomed by humans. The irritation of athlete’s foot is caused by a fungus, and a number of allergies are caused by reproductive spores released by fungi.


    Base your answers to questions 16 on the illustration and information below and on your knowledge of biology. The illustration is of a Tasmanian devil.

    homeostasis and immunity, immune response, homeostasis and immunity, immune response fig: lenv62016-examw_g25.png

    The Tasmanian devil is the largest surviving carnivorous marsupial in Australia. It is in danger of extinction due to an unusual type of cancer called Devil Facial Tumor Disease (DFTD). It can be passed from one individual to another through wounds that occur when they fight over food. Tumor cells in the mouth of an infected animal break off and enter the wound on an uninfected animal. The tumor cells multiply in the body of the newly infected devil, forming new tumors that eventually kill the animal.

    Recent research has shown that the immune system of a Tasmanian devil accepts tumor cells from another devil as if they were cells from its own body. The tumor cells are ignored by the immune system. No immune response develops against them, and the cancerous cells multiply. Scientists predict that DFTD could wipe out all the remaining Tasmanian devils in 25 years, unless a treatment is developed.