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The materials represented in the diagram below were used in a laboratory activity.
These materials were used to carry out the technique known as*
A student performed a gel electrophoresis experiment. The results are represented in the diagram below.
Compared to the fragments at the top of the gel, the fragments at the lower end are*
A laboratory setup that can be used to provide information about relationships between four plant species is represented below.
This setup is part of the technique known as*
Which chemicals are used to cut DNA into fragments for a gel electrophoresis procedure?*
Paper chromatography is a method used in*
Base your answers to questions 6 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Seriously, We’re Poisonous: Coloration Is An Honest Signal
Of Toxicity In Poison Frogs
The conspicuous [noticeable] colors of poisonous frogs serve as a warning to predators: Don’t eat me; I’m toxic. And a new study shows that in the case of at least one frog species, they aren’t bluffing–the more conspicuous the color, the more poisonous the frog. Researchers Martine Maan (University of Groningen, the Netherlands) and Molly Cummings (University of Texas) studied strawberry poison dart frogs, which are native to Panama and come in more than a dozen different color patterns that vary from region to region.…
…Maan and Cummings tested the toxicity levels of 10 differently colored frog populations. Then using known properties of birds’ visual systems, the researchers estimated how each color pattern would look to a bird, an important frog predator. The results show that frogs with more conspicuous color patterns–as seen by birds–tended to be more toxic. The findings suggest that “birds can predict the toxicity of frogs by looking at their colors, possibly better than the frogs can themselves,” Maan said.…
If a sudden genetic mutation in the birds that feed on these frogs made them able to consume any amount of the poison with no harm to them, it is most likely that*
A procedure used in paper chromatography is represented below:
The student is preparing two strips of paper for a chromatography activity. After adding a dot of the ink from the marker pen to the line on the paper on the right, the next step should be to place the strips in a beaker of solvent with the solvent level*
A student is viewing a plant stem cross section using a compound light microscope.
What parts of the microscope should the student use to bring the image into focus?*
Base your answers to questions 9 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The sequences below represent the same portions of a DNA molecule from the same gene used by a student to study the relationship between two plant species. A biological catalyst that recognizes the CCGG site is used to cut the DNA molecules into pieces. The catalyst cuts the DNA between the C and G of the site.
Draw lines in the sequences below for species 1 and species 2 to show where the catalyst would cut the DNA. 
Species 1: T A C C G G A T T A G T T A T G C C G G A T C G
Species 2: T A C G G A T G C C G G A T C G G A A A T T C G*
The diagram below represents the results of chromatography of leaf pigments from four plant species, A, B, C, and D.
Which plant species has pigments most similar to those in A? Support your answer using data from the chromatogram. 
Plant species: ________________________________*
Base your answers to questions 11 on the chart below and on your knowledge of biology. The DNA Sequences chart shows a portion of the code for insulin in humans and cows. These DNA sequences are repeated in the Human Insulin and Cow Insulin charts.
In the DNA Sequences chart, circle the number over each three-letter portion of the DNA that is different in humans and cows. 
Base your answers to questions 12 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
An investigation was carried out on four different plant species to determine which of three species was most closely related to an unknown plant species. The results of the investigation are shown in the data table below.
Which plant species appears to be most closely related to the unknown species? Support your answer. 
Base your answers to question 13-14 on the Universal Genetic Code Chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
• In the table below, record the mRNA codons coded for by the DNA base sequences. 
• Then, using the Universal Genetic Code Chart, record the amino acid sequence that is coded for by the mRNA codons you placed in the table. 
Several days after a litter of three purebred puppies was born, a breeder noticed one extra puppy in the litter. The diagram below shows the results of electrophoresis of DNA fragments from all of the dogs. The puppies are labeled 1, 2, 5, and 6. The parent dogs are labeled 3 and 4.
Identify which puppy might have been placed into this litter by mistake. Support your answer. 
A student wished to determine the evolutionary relationships between three unidentified plant species (X, Y, and Z) and a known species Botana curus. Using an indicator powder to test for the presence of a specific chemical, the student made the observations shown in the data table below.
In the space provided in the data table, write an observation the student would expect to make if species Y were more closely related to Botana curus than it was to species X and Z.