Regents Living Environment Test Preparation Practice

    Other Inbalance And Diseases

    Base your answers to questions 1 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The Enzyme Catalase

    Catalase is an enzyme found in nearly all living organisms that breathe or are exposed to oxygen. According to recent scientific studies, low levels of catalase may play a role in the graying process of human hair. The body naturally produces hydrogen peroxide, and catalase breaks it down into water and oxygen. If there is a dip in catalase levels, hydrogen peroxide cannot be broken down. This causes hydrogen peroxide to bleach hair from the inside out. Scientists believe this finding may someday be used in anti-graying treatments for hair.

    A pharmaceutical company, investigating ways to prevent hair from turning gray, took tissue samples from two different individuals. Both individuals were the same age. Each of the samples was placed in a solution of hydrogen peroxide. The volume of oxygen gas produced was measured every 5 minutes for 25 minutes. The data the company collected are shown below.

    scientific inquiry, data organization, plot and interpretation fig: lenv62015-examw_g25.png

    Directions: Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid on the next page, following the directions below.


    Base your answers to questions 3 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Blood Doping

    Some athletes who compete in endurance events, such as marathon runners or cyclists, believe that they will be more competitive if they can increase the number of red blood cells in their bloodstreams. One way of increasing the number of red blood cells in an athlete is to engage in blood doping.

    Blood doping is an illegal practice in which athletes harvest their own blood months before a competition, isolate the red blood cells, and freeze them. Just before the date of the competition, the blood cells are returned to the athlete’s bloodstream. Another type of blood doping involves using donated blood from another person (blood transfusions). In either case, the athlete will have more red blood cells available than competitors who do not engage in blood doping.

    Athletes who use their own blood cells to blood dope often become anemic as a result. Anemia is a condition caused by a lack of red blood cells and/or iron in the blood. Iron is a necessary part of the pigment used to carry oxygen to the cells. Athletes who use donated blood to blood dope also run the risk of contracting a blood-borne disease.


    Base your answers to questions 9 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

    The fight-or-flight response in humans prepares the body to fight off or run away from a potential threat. This response results from a series of nerve and chemical signals that direct how cells function. This, in turn, determines the actions of organs in these situations.

    Some of the changes experienced by the individuals as part of this response include:

    increased pulse rate increased blood glucose levels increased breathing rate


    Base your answer to question 10-12 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.


    Base your answers to questions 13 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Blood Doping

    Blood is a fluid tissue, which means that blood cells are suspended in a fluid called plasma. Blood tests are concerned with not only the number of blood cells present, but with the amount of plasma that surrounds the cells.

    The diagram below represents tubes containing blood samples from an athlete before and after blood doping. Blood doping is an illegal practice reportedly used by some athletes a few weeks before an athletic event, and involves removing whole blood from an athlete, separating the oxygen-carrying red blood cells (RBCs), and then freezing them. These RBCs are thawed and returned to the athlete’s body just before the athlete competes. Serious health risks are associated with this practice.

    organization and patterns in Life, cell energetics, cellular respiration and APT fig: lenv12015-exam_g25.png


    Base your answers to questions 14 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

    Medical Mystery

    Recently, an elderly man went to a hospital. He felt tired and was coughing and dehydrated. At first, the doctor thought he had pneumonia, but an x ray showed a spot on his lung. Because the man was a smoker, the doctor expected to find a tumor.

    Instead, the surgeon discovered a pea seed growing inside the man’s lung. When the pea seedling was removed, the patient quickly regained his health.