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Equilibrium can be reached by*
A cube of iron at 20.°C is placed in contact with a cube of copper at 60.°C. Which statement describes the initial flow of heat between the cubes?*
At which temperature will Hg(ℓ) and Hg(s) reach equilibrium in a closed system at 1.0 atmosphere?*
Which equation represents a chemical equilibrium?*
Which changes can reach dynamic equilibrium?*
An open flask is half filled with water at 25°C. Phase equilibrium can be reached after*
Which type of equilibrium exists in a sealed flask containing Br2(ℓ) and Br2(g) at 298 K and 1.0 atm?*
Some solid KNO3 remains at the bottom of a stoppered flask containing a saturated KNO3(aq) solution at 22°C. Which statement explains why the contents of the flask are at equilibrium?*
Which statement describes a reaction at equilibrium?*
For a chemical system at equilibrium, the concentrations of both the reactants and the products must*
Base your answers to questions 11 on the information below and on your knowledge of chemistry.
The balanced equation below represents the reaction between a 5.0-gram sample of zinc metal and a 0.5 M solution of hydrochloric acid. The reaction takes place in an open test tube at 298 K and 1 atm in a laboratory activity.
Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → H2(g) + ZnCl2(aq) + energy
Explain why this reaction will not reach equilibrium.*
State, in terms of the rates of the forward and reverse reactions, what occurs when dynamic equilibrium is reached in this system.*
Base your answers to questions 13 on the information below and your knowledge of chemistry.
Methanol can be manufactured by a reaction that is reversible. In the reaction, carbon monoxide gas and hydrogen gas react using a catalyst. The equation below represents this system at equilibrium.
CO(g) + 2H2(g) ⇌ CH3OH(g) + energy
Compare the rate of the forward reaction to the rate of the reverse reaction in this equilibrium system.*
Base your answers to questions 14 on the information below and on your knowledge of chemistry.
Nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is a dark brown gas that is used to make nitric acid and to bleach flour. Nitrogen dioxide has a boiling point of 294 K at 101.3 kPa. In a rigid cylinder with a movable piston, nitrogen dioxide can be in equilibrium with colorless dinitrogen tetroxide, N2O4. This equilibrium is represented by the equation below.
2NO2(g) ⇌ N2O4(g) + 58 kJ
Compare the rate of the forward reaction to the rate of the reverse reaction when the system has reached equilibrium.*
Base your answers to questions 15 on the information below and on your knowledge of chemistry.
An equilibrium system in a sealed, rigid container is represented by the equation below.
CO(g) + H2O(g) ⇌ CO2(g) + H2(g)
Compare the rate of the forward reaction to the rate of the reverse reaction at equilibrium.*